The values of the physicochemical characteristics of raw water employed in this study were gathered considering a critical analysis of literature data (see Table 1), in which either NPOC or TOC values are shown according to data availability. Table 2 summarizes the values of the physicochemical and operative parameters considered by the Korn model (see Equation (5)) that were used as boundary conditions for the simulations in the present research. The data reported in Table 2 were derived from the ones shown in Table 1 by means of their aggregation in three categories, defined on the grounds of raw water origin: surface water, groundwater, and mixed water. Cl2 dose values in Table 1 were converted in ClO2 ones considering a stoichiometric factor equal to 1.05. Mixed water values were gathered as average values of groundwater and surface water. The data in Table 2 are consistent regarding two aspects. First, they reliably describe the quality of surface raw water towards that of groundwater. Second, this approach consistently describes the real situation about WTPs and WDNs, which may be fed by a single or multiple types of raw water.

Table 1

Raw water features and disinfection operative parameters derived from literature survey (n.a.: not available)

ReferenceType of raw water (no. of case studies)LocationParameter (measure unit)Values (min–max)Average value
Sorlini & Collivignarelli (2005)  Groundwater (1) Italy TOC (mg/L) 4.10  
UV254 (1/cm) 0.0786  
pH (pH units) 8.0  
ClO2 dose (mg/L) 1.18  
Nissinen et al. (2002)  Groundwater (6) Finland TOC (mg/L) 1.5–9.5 3.7 
UV254 (1/cm) n.a. n.a. 
pH (pH units) 6.3–7.3 6.85 
Cl2 dose (mg/L) 0.12–0.73 0.41 
Korn et al. (2002)  Groundwater (1) Canada NPOC (mg/L) 0.60  
UV254 (1/cm) 0.009  
pH (pH units) 7.57  
ClO2 dose (mg/L) 1.51  
Korn et al. (2002)  Surface water (7) Canada NPOC (mg/L) 2.03–5.96 4.26 
UV254 (1/cm) 0.034–0.212 0.118 
pH (pH units) 7.21–8.11 7.87 
ClO2 dose (mg/L) 1.51 1.51 
Sorlini et al. (2014)  Surface water (13) Italy TOC (mg/L) 2.4–6.3 4.0 
UV254 (1/cm) 0.015–0.315 0.118 
pH (pH units) 7.60–8.50 8.13 
ClO2 dose (mg/L) 0.40–3.10 1.48 
Kim et al. (2002)  Surface water (4) Korea TOC (mg/L) 2.35–5.12 3.06 
UV254 (1/cm) 0.072–0.116 0.085 
pH (pH units) 7.7–8.2 7.95 
ClO2 dose (mg/L) n.a. n.a. 
Nissinen et al. (2002)  Surface water (24) Finland TOC (mg/L) 2.6–11.9 7.36 
UV254 (1/cm) n.a. n.a. 
pH (pH units) 6.0–7.5 6.78 
Cl2 dose (mg/L) 0.3–3.33 1.86 
Wei et al. (2010)  Mixed (15) China TOC (mg/L) 0.27–7.75 1.88 
UV254 (1/cm) n.a. n.a. 
pH (pH units) 6.97–8.60 7.60 
ClO2 dose (mg/L) n.a. n.a. 
ReferenceType of raw water (no. of case studies)LocationParameter (measure unit)Values (min–max)Average value
Sorlini & Collivignarelli (2005)  Groundwater (1) Italy TOC (mg/L) 4.10  
UV254 (1/cm) 0.0786  
pH (pH units) 8.0  
ClO2 dose (mg/L) 1.18  
Nissinen et al. (2002)  Groundwater (6) Finland TOC (mg/L) 1.5–9.5 3.7 
UV254 (1/cm) n.a. n.a. 
pH (pH units) 6.3–7.3 6.85 
Cl2 dose (mg/L) 0.12–0.73 0.41 
Korn et al. (2002)  Groundwater (1) Canada NPOC (mg/L) 0.60  
UV254 (1/cm) 0.009  
pH (pH units) 7.57  
ClO2 dose (mg/L) 1.51  
Korn et al. (2002)  Surface water (7) Canada NPOC (mg/L) 2.03–5.96 4.26 
UV254 (1/cm) 0.034–0.212 0.118 
pH (pH units) 7.21–8.11 7.87 
ClO2 dose (mg/L) 1.51 1.51 
Sorlini et al. (2014)  Surface water (13) Italy TOC (mg/L) 2.4–6.3 4.0 
UV254 (1/cm) 0.015–0.315 0.118 
pH (pH units) 7.60–8.50 8.13 
ClO2 dose (mg/L) 0.40–3.10 1.48 
Kim et al. (2002)  Surface water (4) Korea TOC (mg/L) 2.35–5.12 3.06 
UV254 (1/cm) 0.072–0.116 0.085 
pH (pH units) 7.7–8.2 7.95 
ClO2 dose (mg/L) n.a. n.a. 
Nissinen et al. (2002)  Surface water (24) Finland TOC (mg/L) 2.6–11.9 7.36 
UV254 (1/cm) n.a. n.a. 
pH (pH units) 6.0–7.5 6.78 
Cl2 dose (mg/L) 0.3–3.33 1.86 
Wei et al. (2010)  Mixed (15) China TOC (mg/L) 0.27–7.75 1.88 
UV254 (1/cm) n.a. n.a. 
pH (pH units) 6.97–8.60 7.60 
ClO2 dose (mg/L) n.a. n.a. 
Table 2

Raw water features and disinfection operative parameters employed for the simulations

ReferenceType of raw waterParameter (measure unit)Value
This study Groundwater TOC (mg/L) 2.80 
UV254 (1/cm) 0.044 
pH (pH units) 6.81 
ClO2 dose (mg/L) 1.03 
Surface water TOC (mg/L) 4.67 
UV254 (1/cm) 0.107 
pH (pH units) 7.68 
ClO2 dose (mg/L) 1.62 
Mixed NPOC (mg/L) 3.12 
UV254 (1/cm) 0.076 
pH (pH units) 7.36 
ClO2 dose (mg/L) 1.32 
ReferenceType of raw waterParameter (measure unit)Value
This study Groundwater TOC (mg/L) 2.80 
UV254 (1/cm) 0.044 
pH (pH units) 6.81 
ClO2 dose (mg/L) 1.03 
Surface water TOC (mg/L) 4.67 
UV254 (1/cm) 0.107 
pH (pH units) 7.68 
ClO2 dose (mg/L) 1.62 
Mixed NPOC (mg/L) 3.12 
UV254 (1/cm) 0.076 
pH (pH units) 7.36 
ClO2 dose (mg/L) 1.32 

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