Results of the maximum water ages obtained from the EPANET simulations are displayed in Table 3 for the three different scenarios with respect to mixing conditions in tanks (Mixed, FIFO, and LIFO) and for the three different types of raw water. As anticipated by Figure 2, for Mixed and FIFO modes, water age values are highest in Tank 65 and Node 160 (the nearest to Tank 65), while in LIFO mode, the values in nodes are more homogeneous and very high in the two tanks. The longest time spent by water in the WDN is predicted for the LIFO case and it corresponds to 514 and 655 h (i.e., about 3–4 weeks) for the two tanks. These values are lower for the Mixed and FIFO scenarios, but even in these cases the long permanence in Tank 65 results in water ages that are higher than 1 week (229 and 290 h for Mixed and FIFO, respectively).

Table 3

Water age and chlorate concentrations increment with respect to input Node 10

 ClO3 increments [μg/L]
Water age [hours]
GW source
SW source
Mixed source
MixedFIFOLIFOMixedFIFOLIFOMixedFIFOLIFOMixedFIFOLIFO
Node 20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 
Node 30 1.57 1.57 1.57 4.36 4.36 4.36 5.43 5.43 5.43 9.34 9.34 9.34 
Node 40 2.55 2.55 2.55 5.96 5.96 5.96 7.38 7.38 7.38 10.93 10.93 10.93 
Node 50 3.58 3.58 3.58 7.27 7.27 7.27 8.96 8.96 8.96 12.00 12.00 12.00 
Node 60 115.59 118.8 8.97 27.46 27.67 11.48 31.86 32.08 13.95 20.25 20.30 14.64 
Node 70 0.73 0.73 0.73 2.48 2.48 2.48 3.11 3.11 3.11 6.78 6.78 6.78 
Node 80 85.83 88.19 9.27 25.31 25.51 11.65 29.54 29.75 14.15 19.70 19.75 14.73 
Node 90 44.82 48.00 4.78 20.88 21.33 8.49 24.66 25.16 10.42 18.41 18.55 12.87 
Node 100 1.55 1.55 1.55 4.33 4.33 4.33 5.39 5.39 5.39 9.30 9.30 9.30 
Node 110 0.84 0.84 0.84 2.77 2.77 2.77 3.46 3.46 3.46 7.25 7.25 7.25 
Node 120 1.81 1.81 1.81 4.80 4.80 4.80 5.97 5.97 5.97 9.81 9.81 9.81 
Node 130 19.04 25.63 12.14 15.59 17.35 13.07 18.70 20.71 15.80 16.53 17.21 15.43 
Node 140 48.20 49.10 10.03 21.36 21.48 12.06 25.19 25.33 14.63 18.56 18.60 14.94 
Node 150 35.39 36.00 9.73 19.35 19.46 11.90 22.96 23.09 14.44 17.92 17.95 14.86 
Node 160 19.48 27.27 13.63 15.72 17.73 13.70 18.85 21.14 16.53 16.58 17.35 15.72 
Node 170 40.62 42.00 13.37 20.24 20.45 13.59 23.95 24.19 16.41 18.21 18.28 15.67 
Tank 65 229.11 290.00 514.66 32.71 34.61 39.46 37.44 39.44 44.45 21.46 21.86 22.79 
Tank 165 35.48 34.73 655.23 19.37 19.24 41.60 22.98 22.83 46.63 17.92 17.88 23.16 
 ClO3 increments [μg/L]
Water age [hours]
GW source
SW source
Mixed source
MixedFIFOLIFOMixedFIFOLIFOMixedFIFOLIFOMixedFIFOLIFO
Node 20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 
Node 30 1.57 1.57 1.57 4.36 4.36 4.36 5.43 5.43 5.43 9.34 9.34 9.34 
Node 40 2.55 2.55 2.55 5.96 5.96 5.96 7.38 7.38 7.38 10.93 10.93 10.93 
Node 50 3.58 3.58 3.58 7.27 7.27 7.27 8.96 8.96 8.96 12.00 12.00 12.00 
Node 60 115.59 118.8 8.97 27.46 27.67 11.48 31.86 32.08 13.95 20.25 20.30 14.64 
Node 70 0.73 0.73 0.73 2.48 2.48 2.48 3.11 3.11 3.11 6.78 6.78 6.78 
Node 80 85.83 88.19 9.27 25.31 25.51 11.65 29.54 29.75 14.15 19.70 19.75 14.73 
Node 90 44.82 48.00 4.78 20.88 21.33 8.49 24.66 25.16 10.42 18.41 18.55 12.87 
Node 100 1.55 1.55 1.55 4.33 4.33 4.33 5.39 5.39 5.39 9.30 9.30 9.30 
Node 110 0.84 0.84 0.84 2.77 2.77 2.77 3.46 3.46 3.46 7.25 7.25 7.25 
Node 120 1.81 1.81 1.81 4.80 4.80 4.80 5.97 5.97 5.97 9.81 9.81 9.81 
Node 130 19.04 25.63 12.14 15.59 17.35 13.07 18.70 20.71 15.80 16.53 17.21 15.43 
Node 140 48.20 49.10 10.03 21.36 21.48 12.06 25.19 25.33 14.63 18.56 18.60 14.94 
Node 150 35.39 36.00 9.73 19.35 19.46 11.90 22.96 23.09 14.44 17.92 17.95 14.86 
Node 160 19.48 27.27 13.63 15.72 17.73 13.70 18.85 21.14 16.53 16.58 17.35 15.72 
Node 170 40.62 42.00 13.37 20.24 20.45 13.59 23.95 24.19 16.41 18.21 18.28 15.67 
Tank 65 229.11 290.00 514.66 32.71 34.61 39.46 37.44 39.44 44.45 21.46 21.86 22.79 
Tank 165 35.48 34.73 655.23 19.37 19.24 41.60 22.98 22.83 46.63 17.92 17.88 23.16 

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