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Finally, there is a constraint that bounds the depth at which pipes can be placed. These allowed depths are measured from the ground to the crown elevation of the pipes. The minimum depth () protects the structure of the pipes and ensures that domestic discharges drain by gravity. The maximum depth () limits axial loads over the pipes. These excavation bounds are presented in Table 2, according to RAS (2000).

Table 2

Excavation limits

Road classificationhmin (m)hmax (m)
Pedestrian or green area 0.75 5.0 
Vehicular 1.2 5.0 
Road classificationhmin (m)hmax (m)
Pedestrian or green area 0.75 5.0 
Vehicular 1.2 5.0 

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