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The simulated water level and the actual measurements are compared to calculate the residuals. The corresponding statistical results calculated as Equations (20) and (21) (root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient R) are summarized in Table 1. It is found that the model errors unavoidably exist at all measurement locations. In addition to general limitations of the numerical model, such residuals may also be attributed to the complex hydrodynamic behavior in this area resulting from water exchange between the Indian and Pacific oceans. Therefore, it is important to apply a data assimilation method to correct SRM and improve its accuracy:
formula
20
formula
21
where, is the observed water level; x the water level from the numerical model; and n the number of records.
Table 1

Statistics of model residue at sample stations

StationRMSE (m)R
West Coast 0.2172 0.966 
Tanjong Changi 0.2670 0.947 
Tanah Merah 0.2122 0.957 
Sembawang 0.3196 0.933 
Raffles 0.2090 0.963 
Langkawi 0.1305 0.989 
Kelang 0.2834 0.983 
Lumut 0.1465 0.981 
Penang 0.1883 0.948 
Tioman 0.2323 0.979 
Getting 0.2887 0.874 
Kuantan 0.2439 0.978 
Sedili 0.2199 0.961 
StationRMSE (m)R
West Coast 0.2172 0.966 
Tanjong Changi 0.2670 0.947 
Tanah Merah 0.2122 0.957 
Sembawang 0.3196 0.933 
Raffles 0.2090 0.963 
Langkawi 0.1305 0.989 
Kelang 0.2834 0.983 
Lumut 0.1465 0.981 
Penang 0.1883 0.948 
Tioman 0.2323 0.979 
Getting 0.2887 0.874 
Kuantan 0.2439 0.978 
Sedili 0.2199 0.961 
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