The layout of the pipeline system used in the experiments is shown in Figure 5 and the physical details are given in Table 2. The wave speeds are calculated using the theoretical wave speed formula (Wylie & Streeter 1993). The following parameter values are used: Young's modulus of a copper pipe , restraint factor for thick-walled copper pipe anchored throughout , bulk modulus of elasticity of water at 15 °C is , and density of water at 15 °C is . The restraint factor is a dimensionless parameter that depends on the elastic properties and the constraint condition of the pipe (Wylie & Streeter 1993).

Table 2

Pipe class . | Internal diameter (symbol = value (mm)) . | Wall thickness (symbol = value (mm)) . | Wave speed (symbol = value (m/s)) . |
---|---|---|---|

A | D_{0} = 22.14 | e_{0} = 1.63 | a_{0} = 1,319 |

B | D_{1} = 22.96 | e_{1} = 1.22 | a_{1} = 1,273 |

C | D_{2} = 23.58 | e_{2} = 0.91 | a_{2} = 1,217 |

Pipe class . | Internal diameter (symbol = value (mm)) . | Wall thickness (symbol = value (mm)) . | Wave speed (symbol = value (m/s)) . |
---|---|---|---|

A | D_{0} = 22.14 | e_{0} = 1.63 | a_{0} = 1,319 |

B | D_{1} = 22.96 | e_{1} = 1.22 | a_{1} = 1,273 |

C | D_{2} = 23.58 | e_{2} = 0.91 | a_{2} = 1,217 |

Figure 5

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