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The layout of the pipeline system used in the experiments is shown in Figure 5 and the physical details are given in Table 2. The wave speeds are calculated using the theoretical wave speed formula (Wylie & Streeter 1993). The following parameter values are used: Young's modulus of a copper pipe , restraint factor for thick-walled copper pipe anchored throughout , bulk modulus of elasticity of water at 15 °C is , and density of water at 15 °C is . The restraint factor is a dimensionless parameter that depends on the elastic properties and the constraint condition of the pipe (Wylie & Streeter 1993).
Table 2

Physical details of the pipeline system used in the laboratory experiments

Pipe classInternal diameter (symbol = value (mm))Wall thickness (symbol = value (mm))Wave speed (symbol = value (m/s))
D0 = 22.14 e0 = 1.63 a0 = 1,319 
D1 = 22.96 e1 = 1.22 a1 = 1,273 
D2 = 23.58 e2 = 0.91 a2 = 1,217 
Pipe classInternal diameter (symbol = value (mm))Wall thickness (symbol = value (mm))Wave speed (symbol = value (m/s))
D0 = 22.14 e0 = 1.63 a0 = 1,319 
D1 = 22.96 e1 = 1.22 a1 = 1,273 
D2 = 23.58 e2 = 0.91 a2 = 1,217 
Figure 5

System layout of the experimental pipeline system.

Figure 5

System layout of the experimental pipeline system.

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