Skip to Main Content
The highest concentration of enterococci was observed at site 9 during the first round of sampling, exceeding 59,000 colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL (Table 2). This site was adjacent to a major storm water outlet and downstream of a WWTP (approximately 4 km) (Figure 1). This was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than the enterococci concentrations detected across all other samples. The mean number of enterococci found across round one (except site 9) sampling was not significantly higher than that of round two, however, the mean number of these bacteria in samples from round three were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of round two (Table 2).
Table 2

Enumeration of enterococci (CFU/100 mL) found at each sampling site and across three sampling rounds

Site codeSampling round 1Sampling round 2bSampling round 3b
Mean ± SDMean ± SDMean ± SD
NT 20 ± 8 NT 
NT 143 ± 5 74 ± 98 
NT NT 47 ± 12 
NT 210 ± 24 NT 
NT NT 30 ± 10 
557 ± 48a 343 ± 42 60 ± 26 
NT 420 ± 73 NT 
829 ± 104a NT 117 ± 23 
59,800 ± 7,550a NT 187 ± 15 
10 555 ± 48a NT NT 
11 765 ± 107a NT 217 ± 76 
12 NT 2,363 ± 427a NT 
13 903 ± 138a NT 357 ± 55 
14 2,800 ± 1,006a NT 707 ± 330a 
15 NT 3,290 ± 316a NT 
16 407 ± 48 2,530 ± 235a 200 ± 53 
17 394 ± 62 943 ± 145a 190 ± 35 
18 NT 1,593 ± 115a 330 ± 58 
19 NT 1,213 ± 73a NT 
20 NT 1,063 ± 172a NT 
21 NT 777 ± 135a NT 
22 NT 630 ± 33a NT 
23 NT 513 ± 61a NT 
Mean ± SD 901 ± 790c 1,070 ± 974 210 ± 189 
Site codeSampling round 1Sampling round 2bSampling round 3b
Mean ± SDMean ± SDMean ± SD
NT 20 ± 8 NT 
NT 143 ± 5 74 ± 98 
NT NT 47 ± 12 
NT 210 ± 24 NT 
NT NT 30 ± 10 
557 ± 48a 343 ± 42 60 ± 26 
NT 420 ± 73 NT 
829 ± 104a NT 117 ± 23 
59,800 ± 7,550a NT 187 ± 15 
10 555 ± 48a NT NT 
11 765 ± 107a NT 217 ± 76 
12 NT 2,363 ± 427a NT 
13 903 ± 138a NT 357 ± 55 
14 2,800 ± 1,006a NT 707 ± 330a 
15 NT 3,290 ± 316a NT 
16 407 ± 48 2,530 ± 235a 200 ± 53 
17 394 ± 62 943 ± 145a 190 ± 35 
18 NT 1,593 ± 115a 330 ± 58 
19 NT 1,213 ± 73a NT 
20 NT 1,063 ± 172a NT 
21 NT 777 ± 135a NT 
22 NT 630 ± 33a NT 
23 NT 513 ± 61a NT 
Mean ± SD 901 ± 790c 1,070 ± 974 210 ± 189 

NT indicates sites that were not tested at each sampling round.

aEnterococci concentrations above Category D of Australian recreational water quality guidelines (NHMRC 2008).

bSignificant difference (P < 0.05).

cMean value excluding the site 9 value.

Figure 1

Similarity among the populations of enterococci (C-BPTs) at the different sites, measured as a population similarity coefficient (SP-value). The mean number of VGs and antibiotic resistance (ABR) is indicated for each sample site. aIndicates those clusters that have a significantly (P < 0.05) higher number of C-BPT detected at those sites.

Figure 1

Similarity among the populations of enterococci (C-BPTs) at the different sites, measured as a population similarity coefficient (SP-value). The mean number of VGs and antibiotic resistance (ABR) is indicated for each sample site. aIndicates those clusters that have a significantly (P < 0.05) higher number of C-BPT detected at those sites.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal