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An external professional sampling services provider conducted sampling of influent (raw wastewater) and various sludge streams (e.g. WAS; sludge feed to the belt press and solar dryer sludge at Boneo WwTP). SEW operational staff conducted drying pan sludge sampling following hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) sampling protocols. The sampling programme at Boneo and Somers WwTPs was performed over the period November 2014–December 2015. Comprehensive sampling of all stages of sludge and biosolids treatment was conducted as summarised in Table 1.

Table 1

Sludge and biosolids sampling programme at Boneo and Somers WwTPs, Victoria, Australia

Site/TypeMethodFrequencyMonitoring parameters
E. coliSalmonellaAdenovirusHelminths
BONEO WwTP 
Raw wastewater (influent) 24 hour composite Fortnightly    
WAS 10 L Fortnightly   Xa,b 
Belt press feed sludge 10 L Fortnightly   Xa 
Solar dryer sludge (sheds 1–3) Composite At harvest   Xa,b 
Drying pan sludge Composite At harvest Xa,b 
Two 1-year biosolids stockpiles derived from drying pan sludge Composite Single sample 
One 1-year biosolids stockpile derived from solar dryer sludge Composite Single sample 
Two 2-year biosolids stockpiles derived from the drying pan sludge Composite Single sample 
One 2-year stockpile derived from the solar dryer sludge Composite Single sample 
SOMERS WwTP 
Raw wastewater (influent) 24 hour composite Fortnightly    
WAS 10 L Fortnightly   Xa,c 
Drying pan sludge (1–4) Composite At harvest Xa,c 
Three 1-year stockpiles derived from the drying pan sludge Composite Single sample 
One 2-year stockpile derived from the drying pan sludge Composite Single sample 
Site/TypeMethodFrequencyMonitoring parameters
E. coliSalmonellaAdenovirusHelminths
BONEO WwTP 
Raw wastewater (influent) 24 hour composite Fortnightly    
WAS 10 L Fortnightly   Xa,b 
Belt press feed sludge 10 L Fortnightly   Xa 
Solar dryer sludge (sheds 1–3) Composite At harvest   Xa,b 
Drying pan sludge Composite At harvest Xa,b 
Two 1-year biosolids stockpiles derived from drying pan sludge Composite Single sample 
One 1-year biosolids stockpile derived from solar dryer sludge Composite Single sample 
Two 2-year biosolids stockpiles derived from the drying pan sludge Composite Single sample 
One 2-year stockpile derived from the solar dryer sludge Composite Single sample 
SOMERS WwTP 
Raw wastewater (influent) 24 hour composite Fortnightly    
WAS 10 L Fortnightly   Xa,c 
Drying pan sludge (1–4) Composite At harvest Xa,c 
Three 1-year stockpiles derived from the drying pan sludge Composite Single sample 
One 2-year stockpile derived from the drying pan sludge Composite Single sample 

aOnly if Ascaris was detected in the influent (raw wastewater).

bSingle sampling events on 13 February 2015 (WAS), 8 April 2015 (solar drying sheds 1–3), 30 April 2015 and 7 December 2015 (drying pans).

cSingle sampling events on 17 February 2015 (WAS) and 30 April 2015 (drying pans 1–4).

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