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The first component represents about 56% of the variance and combines the chemical variables TDS, Cl, SO4, Na and Ca; the second component represents about 15.8% of the variance and combines K, Na and HCO3. The weighting values of the specific parameters on the corresponding principal component are indicated in Table 3. These values represent their effective role on the ionic composition and water quality. The salinization processes that could contribute to the distribution of the first component parameters are evaporation, leaching/dissolution of marine salts and seawater intrusion, while dilution with rain water and the El-Salam Canal could be responsible for the second component.

Table 3

Component matrixa of the chemical data

 Component
12
TDS 0.975 0.126 
0.509 0.589 
Na 0.827 0.457 
Mg 0.599 −0.464 
Ca 0.480 −0.492 
Cl 0.960 0.119 
SO4 0.867 −0.172 
HCO3 −0.573 0.439 
 Component
12
TDS 0.975 0.126 
0.509 0.589 
Na 0.827 0.457 
Mg 0.599 −0.464 
Ca 0.480 −0.492 
Cl 0.960 0.119 
SO4 0.867 −0.172 
HCO3 −0.573 0.439 

aTwo components extracted from matrix; Extraction method = Principal component analysis; Loadings greater than 0.3 are in bold.

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