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According to the Egyptian standards for drinking and domestic uses adapted from Higher Committee for Water (1995) (Table 7), about only 10% of the collected groundwater samples can be used for human drinking and the rest can not be used because their TDS and major ion concentrations exceed the permissible limits.

Table 7

Egyptian standards for drinking and domestic uses

Chemical constituentMax. permissible limit in mg/l
Calcium 200 
Chloride 500 
Hardness as CaCO3 500 
Magnesium 150 
Nitrate 10 
TDS 1,200 
Sodium 200 
Sulphate 250–400 
pH 6.5–9.2 
Chemical constituentMax. permissible limit in mg/l
Calcium 200 
Chloride 500 
Hardness as CaCO3 500 
Magnesium 150 
Nitrate 10 
TDS 1,200 
Sodium 200 
Sulphate 250–400 
pH 6.5–9.2 

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