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In order to compare and understand the formation of DBPs from SMPs under different conditions, DBPs formation potential (DBPFP, except the formation of DBPs under different disinfectant dosage and reaction time conditions) was used. The details of the prepared samples are shown in Table 1. All samples were conducted in duplicate.

Table 1

Experimental design

FactorsChlorinationChloraminationOzonation
Temperature (°C) 25, 30, 40 25, 30, 40 25, 30, 40 
pH 5.0, 7.0, 9.0 6.0, 8.0, 10.0 5.0, 7.0, 9.0 
Reaction time 1, 3,5, 7 (d) 1, 3, 5, 7 (d) 0.5, 2, 12 (h) 
Disinfectant dose 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0a 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0b 1, 4, 8, 12 (mg/L) 
Bromide (mg/L) 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 
Baseline conditions 25 °C, pH = 7, 7d 25 °C, pH = 8, 7d 25 °C, pH = 7, 12h 
2.0a, Bromide = none 2.0b, Bromide = none 4 mg/L, Bromide = none 
FactorsChlorinationChloraminationOzonation
Temperature (°C) 25, 30, 40 25, 30, 40 25, 30, 40 
pH 5.0, 7.0, 9.0 6.0, 8.0, 10.0 5.0, 7.0, 9.0 
Reaction time 1, 3,5, 7 (d) 1, 3, 5, 7 (d) 0.5, 2, 12 (h) 
Disinfectant dose 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0a 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0b 1, 4, 8, 12 (mg/L) 
Bromide (mg/L) 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 
Baseline conditions 25 °C, pH = 7, 7d 25 °C, pH = 8, 7d 25 °C, pH = 7, 12h 
2.0a, Bromide = none 2.0b, Bromide = none 4 mg/L, Bromide = none 

aMolar ratio of chlorine/dissolved organic carbon (DOC).

bMolar ratio of chloramine/DOC.

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