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To better assess the extent of bromine substitution of DBPs, BIF was calculated (Table 2). In agreement with previous studies on NOM (Hu et al. 2010; Hong et al. 2013), the BIF values all presented a similar increasing pattern with increasing bromide level in chlorination, chloramination and ozonation (except TBM), implying that dibromo-DBPs and tribromo-DBPs were more easily formed with higher bromide levels. Also, BIF values were generally higher in chlorination than in chloramination. The main reason for this may be that compared with chloramine, free chlorine was a stronger oxidant and reacted with bromide faster, thus resulting in greater HOBr formation (Chang et al. 2001; Hong et al. 2013). Therefore, for wastewater disinfection, chloramination may be a better choice to control the formation of Br-DBPs.

Table 2

BIF for DBPs as a function of bromide level in chlorination, chloramination and ozonation

 Chlorination
Chloramination
Ozonation
Br(mg/L)THMsHAAsHANsTHMsHAAsHANsTHMsHAAs
0.2 0.69 0.45 0.35 0.24 0.32 0.29 3.00 1.42 
0.5 1.05 0.66 0.63 0.56 0.54 0.61 3.00 1.57 
1.0 1.29 0.88 1.06 0.96 0.83 1.00 3.00 1.68 
 Chlorination
Chloramination
Ozonation
Br(mg/L)THMsHAAsHANsTHMsHAAsHANsTHMsHAAs
0.2 0.69 0.45 0.35 0.24 0.32 0.29 3.00 1.42 
0.5 1.05 0.66 0.63 0.56 0.54 0.61 3.00 1.57 
1.0 1.29 0.88 1.06 0.96 0.83 1.00 3.00 1.68 

BIF was defined as the ratio of the molar concentration of bromine incorporated into a given class of DBPs to the molar concentration of DBPs in that class. Take THMs as an example, BIFTHMs is the molar amount of bromine in the THMs (CHBrCl2 + 2CHClBr2 + 3CHBr3) divided by total molar THMs concentration: BIF = (CHBrCl2 + 2CHClBr2 + 3CHBr3)/ΣTHMs.

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