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The results of key factors affecting DBPs formation from SMPs in chlorination and chloramination are shown in Table 3. Generally, the higher the partial correlation coefficients, the more important the factor is. For THMs, HAAs and CSs formation, bromide level was the most important factor during both chlorination and chloramination. As for HKs, HANs and TCNM formation, effects of pH and then bromide level were generally more significant than those of other factors during chlorination. During chloramination, bromide level showed the most important influence on HKs formation, but less influence on HANs and TCNM formation. Therefore, it is concluded that reducing bromide level will be an effective strategy to control C-DBPs formation from SMPs, whether for chlorination or chloramination. Besides the bromide level, controlling the pH was also very important to control N-DBPs formation.

Table 3

Results of regression procedure for DBPs

DBPsDisinfectantTemperaturepHDosageReaction timeBromide levelRegression coefficientsp values
THMs Chlorine 0.627 0.622 0.887 0.885 0.965 0.951 <0.05 
Chloramine 0.857 −0.912 0.856 0.974 0.995 0.991 <0.01 
HAAs Chlorine 0.923 −0.659 0.871 0.935 0.956 0.959 <0.05 
Chloramine  −0.731 0.770 0.811 0.960 0.943 <0.01 
CSs Chlorine 0.977 0.940 0.936 0.962 −0.958 0.977 <0.01 
Chloramine 0.795 −0.527  0.741 −0.946 0.898 <0.05 
HKs Chlorine −0.717 −0.937  0.606 −0.866 0.877 <0.05 
Chloramine −0.848 −0.706  0.836 −0.944 0.877 <0.05 
HANs Chlorine  −0.805  0.563 −0.666 0.667 <0.05 
Chloramine 0.517 −0.434 0.566 0.573 −0.219 0.828 <0.05 
TCNM Chlorine  0.858 0.730 0.739 −0.779 0.771 <0.05 
Chloramine 0.777 −0.872 0.856 0.796 −0.840 0.876 <0.01 
DBPsDisinfectantTemperaturepHDosageReaction timeBromide levelRegression coefficientsp values
THMs Chlorine 0.627 0.622 0.887 0.885 0.965 0.951 <0.05 
Chloramine 0.857 −0.912 0.856 0.974 0.995 0.991 <0.01 
HAAs Chlorine 0.923 −0.659 0.871 0.935 0.956 0.959 <0.05 
Chloramine  −0.731 0.770 0.811 0.960 0.943 <0.01 
CSs Chlorine 0.977 0.940 0.936 0.962 −0.958 0.977 <0.01 
Chloramine 0.795 −0.527  0.741 −0.946 0.898 <0.05 
HKs Chlorine −0.717 −0.937  0.606 −0.866 0.877 <0.05 
Chloramine −0.848 −0.706  0.836 −0.944 0.877 <0.05 
HANs Chlorine  −0.805  0.563 −0.666 0.667 <0.05 
Chloramine 0.517 −0.434 0.566 0.573 −0.219 0.828 <0.05 
TCNM Chlorine  0.858 0.730 0.739 −0.779 0.771 <0.05 
Chloramine 0.777 −0.872 0.856 0.796 −0.840 0.876 <0.01 

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