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The highest number of E. coli detected during the first round exceeded 50,000 CFU/100 mL at sampling site 9, which is downstream (approximately 4 km) of a WWTP and a major storm water outlet. Apart from this site, the mean number of E. coli found in the water samples during round 1 (1,123 ± 602 CFU/100 mL) was significantly higher than that of round 2 (268 ± 183 CFU/100 mL [P < 0.01]) and round 3 (121 ± 139 CFU/100 mL [P < 0.01]) (Table 1).

Table 1

Number of Escherichia coli (CFU/100 mL) at each sampling site

Site codeSampling round 1a,bSampling round 2aSampling round 3b
 Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD 
NT 397 ± 58c NT 
NT 613 ± 172c 393 ± 72c 
NT NT 23 ± 6 
NT 197 ± 17c NT 
NT NT 20 ± 10 
1,413 ± 111c 317 ± 58c 40 ± 10 
NT 220 ± 49c NT 
1,680 ± 73c NT 47 ± 6 
50,867 ± 8,697c NT 93 ± 32 
10 1,260 ± 104c NT NT 
11 440 ± 67c NT 73 ± 32 
12 NT 395 ± 65c NT 
13 1,413 ± 111c NT 113 ± 15c 
14 693 ± 114c NT 457 ± 140c 
15 NT 450 ± 22c NT 
16 110 ± 14c 597 ± 100c 70 ± 20 
17 1,973 ± 308c 263 ± 34c 37 ± 31 
18 NT 187 ± 71c 80 ± 15 
19 NT 170 ± 43c NT 
20 NT 63 ± 5 NT 
21 NT 47 ± 17 NT 
22 NT 60 ± 36 NT 
23 NT 43 ± 5 NT 
Mean ± SD 1,123 ± 602* 268 ± 183* 121 ± 139V* 
Site codeSampling round 1a,bSampling round 2aSampling round 3b
 Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD 
NT 397 ± 58c NT 
NT 613 ± 172c 393 ± 72c 
NT NT 23 ± 6 
NT 197 ± 17c NT 
NT NT 20 ± 10 
1,413 ± 111c 317 ± 58c 40 ± 10 
NT 220 ± 49c NT 
1,680 ± 73c NT 47 ± 6 
50,867 ± 8,697c NT 93 ± 32 
10 1,260 ± 104c NT NT 
11 440 ± 67c NT 73 ± 32 
12 NT 395 ± 65c NT 
13 1,413 ± 111c NT 113 ± 15c 
14 693 ± 114c NT 457 ± 140c 
15 NT 450 ± 22c NT 
16 110 ± 14c 597 ± 100c 70 ± 20 
17 1,973 ± 308c 263 ± 34c 37 ± 31 
18 NT 187 ± 71c 80 ± 15 
19 NT 170 ± 43c NT 
20 NT 63 ± 5 NT 
21 NT 47 ± 17 NT 
22 NT 60 ± 36 NT 
23 NT 43 ± 5 NT 
Mean ± SD 1,123 ± 602* 268 ± 183* 121 ± 139V* 

NT, not tested.

a,bIndicates significant difference (P < 0.01).

cSites having E. coli numbers above the ANZECC/ARMCANZ Recreational Water Quality Guidelines (ANZECC/ARMCANZ 2000).

*P < 0.01 for sampling round 1 versus 2 and 3.

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