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Concentrations of Li, B, F, Zn, and U in all waters were lower than both the Chinese national standard (CNS) (MH 2006) and international guidelines for drinking water quality (INS) (WHO 2011) (Table 1). F concentrations were in the range of 0.01–0.67 mg/L (Favg = 0.33 mg/L). The Ba content of Sample Nos. 36 and 37 exceeded CNS limits (700 μg/L), at 985.27 μ/L and 750.58 μg/L, respectively. The Se content of Sample No. 30 from Minzhu Town, and Sample Nos. 33–37 from Shagou (14.79, 10.16, 23.58, 19.76, 18.18, and 19.48 μg/L, respectively) met Chinese national standards for mineral drinking water quality (CNSM) guidelines (GAQS 2008) (Figure 4). Strontium (Sr) concentrations in Sample Nos. 10, 12, 13, 26, 55, and 61 (0.21, 0.45, 0.44, 0.32, 0.21, and 0.39 mg/L, respectively) were also higher than the CNSM limits (Figure 4). The average Se content in fissure water was 5.52 μg/L, with the highest value being 23.58 μg/L; the average content of Se in river water was 2.82 μ/L, with a maximum value of 7.68 μg/L.
Table 1

Concentrations of trace elements in water samples and the test standards

ParametersLi (μg/L)B (mg/L)F (mg/L)V (μg/L)Co (μg/L)Zn (μg/L)Ga (μg/L)Se (μg/L)Rb (μg/L)Sr (mg/L)Cs (μg/L)Ba (μg/L)U (μg/L)
Min 0.12 0.00 0.01 −5.03 0.03 0.11 0.23 0.21 0.15 0.03 0.00 14.07 0.02 
Max 6.18 0.06 0.67 11.46 0.28 94.90 17.14 23.58 5.54 0.45 0.35 958.27 26.00 
Mean 0.85 0.01 0.33 −0.19 0.07 15.24 3.54 4.63 0.87 0.13 0.03 192.47 2.36 
Median 0.46 0.00 0.35 −2.34 0.05 6.15 2.41 2.64 0.71 0.10 0.01 133.21 0.97 
Standard deviation 1.14 0.01 0.19 4.22 0.05 21.93 3.65 5.80 0.82 0.08 0.07 200.52 4.29 
Skew 3.47 4.55 −0.05 1.16 2.44 1.99 1.83 1.82 3.38 2.26 4.12 1.89 3.68 
CNS (MH 2006)  0.5   1,000  10    700  
INS (WHO 2011)  2.4 1.5     40    700 30 
CNSM (GAQS 2008) ≥200 <5 <1.5   ≥200  ≥10  ≥0.2  <700  
ParametersLi (μg/L)B (mg/L)F (mg/L)V (μg/L)Co (μg/L)Zn (μg/L)Ga (μg/L)Se (μg/L)Rb (μg/L)Sr (mg/L)Cs (μg/L)Ba (μg/L)U (μg/L)
Min 0.12 0.00 0.01 −5.03 0.03 0.11 0.23 0.21 0.15 0.03 0.00 14.07 0.02 
Max 6.18 0.06 0.67 11.46 0.28 94.90 17.14 23.58 5.54 0.45 0.35 958.27 26.00 
Mean 0.85 0.01 0.33 −0.19 0.07 15.24 3.54 4.63 0.87 0.13 0.03 192.47 2.36 
Median 0.46 0.00 0.35 −2.34 0.05 6.15 2.41 2.64 0.71 0.10 0.01 133.21 0.97 
Standard deviation 1.14 0.01 0.19 4.22 0.05 21.93 3.65 5.80 0.82 0.08 0.07 200.52 4.29 
Skew 3.47 4.55 −0.05 1.16 2.44 1.99 1.83 1.82 3.38 2.26 4.12 1.89 3.68 
CNS (MH 2006)  0.5   1,000  10    700  
INS (WHO 2011)  2.4 1.5     40    700 30 
CNSM (GAQS 2008) ≥200 <5 <1.5   ≥200  ≥10  ≥0.2  <700  

According to CNSM (GAQS 2008), drinking natural mineral water must have more than one from eight parameters including lithium, strontium, zinc, selenium, iodine, sodium metasilicate, free CO2, and TDS, that reaches the index limit requirements.

CNS, Chinese national standard for drinking water quality; INS, international guidelines for drinking water quality; CNSM, Chinese national standard for drinking natural mineral water quality.

Figure 4

Concentrations of Se, Sr, and other trace elements in water samples from the Lan'gao area. The dotted lines indicate the legal limits of Se (>10 μg/L) and Sr (>0.2 mg/L).

Figure 4

Concentrations of Se, Sr, and other trace elements in water samples from the Lan'gao area. The dotted lines indicate the legal limits of Se (>10 μg/L) and Sr (>0.2 mg/L).

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