Skip to Main Content

With reference to toxic elements, the concentrations of Be, Cr, Mn, Cu, As, Mo, Ag, Sb, Hg, and Pb were lower than both CNS and INS stipulations (Table 2, Figure 4). The arsenic content was in the range of 0.33–6.29 μg/L (Asavg = 2.88 μg/L). Al concentrations in seven fissure water and two river water samples exceeded CNS limits (200 μg/L). The Fe concentrations of five samples (326.74–484.48 μg/L) were higher than CNS guidelines (300 μg/L). The Ni content of five fissure water samples (20.32–24.58 μg/L) was slightly higher than CNS limits (20 μg/L), but lower than INS guidelines (70 μg/L). Cd content was lower than CNS guidelines, while five fissure water samples (3.37–4.41 μg/L) showed concentrations slightly higher than CNSM limits (3 μg/L). The Tl content of 11 fissure water samples (0.11–0.49 μg/L) was higher than CNS limits (0.1 μg/L) (Table 2, Figure 4).

Table 2

Concentrations of toxic elements in water samples and the test standards (μg/L)

ParametersBeAlCrMnFeNiCuAsSeMoAgCdSbHgTlPb
Min −0.25 3.07 0.28 0.01 28.81 0.15 0.15 0.33 0.21 0.13 −0.01 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 
Max 0.14 818.71 11.26 6.68 484.48 24.58 14.67 6.29 23.58 52.92 0.14 4.41 4.75 0.02 0.49 0.47 
Mean −0.07 92.89 2.04 0.81 102.37 4.58 2.03 2.88 4.63 8.71 0.01 0.76 0.40 0.00 0.05 0.05 
Median −0.07 22.52 1.04 0.28 68.76 1.36 0.99 2.68 2.64 5.12 0.00 0.36 0.25 0.00 0.02 0.01 
Standard deviation 0.09 177.46 2.45 1.37 108.68 6.68 2.89 1.20 5.80 9.83 0.02 1.03 0.64 0.00 0.08 0.10 
Skew 0.07 2.53 2.17 2.74 2.34 1.93 2.83 0.75 1.82 2.10 6.54 2.18 5.29 4.11 3.12 2.94 
CNS (MH 2006) 200 50 100 300 20 1,000 10 10 70 50  0.1 10 
INS (WHO 2011)   50   70 2,000 10 40   20  10 
CNSM (GAQS 2008)   <50 <400  <20 <1,000 <10 <50  <50 <3  <1  <10 
ParametersBeAlCrMnFeNiCuAsSeMoAgCdSbHgTlPb
Min −0.25 3.07 0.28 0.01 28.81 0.15 0.15 0.33 0.21 0.13 −0.01 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 
Max 0.14 818.71 11.26 6.68 484.48 24.58 14.67 6.29 23.58 52.92 0.14 4.41 4.75 0.02 0.49 0.47 
Mean −0.07 92.89 2.04 0.81 102.37 4.58 2.03 2.88 4.63 8.71 0.01 0.76 0.40 0.00 0.05 0.05 
Median −0.07 22.52 1.04 0.28 68.76 1.36 0.99 2.68 2.64 5.12 0.00 0.36 0.25 0.00 0.02 0.01 
Standard deviation 0.09 177.46 2.45 1.37 108.68 6.68 2.89 1.20 5.80 9.83 0.02 1.03 0.64 0.00 0.08 0.10 
Skew 0.07 2.53 2.17 2.74 2.34 1.93 2.83 0.75 1.82 2.10 6.54 2.18 5.29 4.11 3.12 2.94 
CNS (MH 2006) 200 50 100 300 20 1,000 10 10 70 50  0.1 10 
INS (WHO 2011)   50   70 2,000 10 40   20  10 
CNSM (GAQS 2008)   <50 <400  <20 <1,000 <10 <50  <50 <3  <1  <10 

CNS, Chinese national standard for drinking water quality; INS, international guidelines for drinking water quality; CNSM, Chinese national standard for drinking natural mineral water quality.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal