Skip to Main Content

The NEEAR data set consisted of 27,276 participants of whom 17,571 were water recreators, who engaged in telephone follow-up (Table 1). CHEERS had 11,297 participants of whom 7,710 were water recreators, who engaged in telephone follow-up (Table 2). In general water recreators tended to be younger compared to non-water recreators. In both studies, a greater fraction of water recreators who swallowed water developed GI symptoms within 0–3 days of recreation compared to those with less water exposure or to non-water recreators. Among CHEERS participants, those with GI symptoms were defined according to the data available in CHEERS and according to the data available in NEEAR (Table 1). When including those with less than three loose stools in a 24-hour period (CHEERS definition), there were more participants in CHEERS which could be considered to have GI symptoms.

Table 1

Demographics and symptoms by water exposure, among NEEAR participantsa

 Swimmers, swallow water (n = 2,300)Swimmers, did not swallow water (n = 10,475)Waders (n = 4,268)Non-water recreators (n = 9,363)
Age (years) 
 0–10 1,326 (59.4) 2,646 (25.9) 643 (15.3) 824 (8.9) 
 11–19 411 (18.4) 1,953 (19.1) 428 (10.2) 1,013 (11.0) 
 20–54 455 (20.4) 5,150 (50.5) 2,738 (65.3) 6,106 (66.2) 
  ≥ 55 42 (1.9) 453 (4.4) 383 (9.1) 1,284 (13.9) 
Sex 
 Male 1,247 (54.2) 4,944 (47.3) 1,571 (36.8) 3,867 (41.3) 
 Female 1,052 (45.8) 5,506 (52.7) 2,694 (63.2) 5,492 (58.7) 
Race 
 White 1,683 (73.3) 8,238 (79.0) 3,579 (84.2) 7,428 (79.4) 
 Black 184 (8.0) 520 (5.0) 248 (5.8) 674 (7.2) 
 Hispanic 314 (13.7) 1,287 (12.3) 261 (6.1) 906 (9.7) 
 Other/multiple 114 (5.0) 385 (3.7) 165 (3.9) 341 (3.8) 
AGI (0–3 days)b 119 (5.0) 432 (4.0) 122 (2.7) 226 (2.3) 
Any GI symptoms (0–3 days) 146 (6.1) 524 (4.8) 145 (3.3) 299 (3.1) 
Responses to symptoms, n (%) 
 OTC 83 (56.9) 290 (55.6) 85 (58.6) 163 (54.2) 
 Prescription 24 (16.6) 50 (9.5) 18 (12.5) 40 (13.4) 
 Contact with HCP 32 (21.9) 76 (14.5) 25 (17.4) 58 (19.4) 
 ED/Hospitalization 4 (2.7) 7 (1.3) 4 (2.8) 7 (2.3) 
 Missed work/activities 54 (37.0) 205 (39.1) 57 (39.3) 113 (37.8) 
Duration of GI symptoms, mean (median) 2.8 (2.0) 3.1 (2.0) 3.0 (2.0) 3.3 (2.0) 
GI SDsc, mean (median) 5.7 (4.0) 6.4 (4.0) 5.9 (4.0) 6.5 (4.0) 
Total SDsd, mean (median) 9.3 (6.0) 8.9 (6.0) 9.3 (6.0) 10.0 (6.0) 
 Swimmers, swallow water (n = 2,300)Swimmers, did not swallow water (n = 10,475)Waders (n = 4,268)Non-water recreators (n = 9,363)
Age (years) 
 0–10 1,326 (59.4) 2,646 (25.9) 643 (15.3) 824 (8.9) 
 11–19 411 (18.4) 1,953 (19.1) 428 (10.2) 1,013 (11.0) 
 20–54 455 (20.4) 5,150 (50.5) 2,738 (65.3) 6,106 (66.2) 
  ≥ 55 42 (1.9) 453 (4.4) 383 (9.1) 1,284 (13.9) 
Sex 
 Male 1,247 (54.2) 4,944 (47.3) 1,571 (36.8) 3,867 (41.3) 
 Female 1,052 (45.8) 5,506 (52.7) 2,694 (63.2) 5,492 (58.7) 
Race 
 White 1,683 (73.3) 8,238 (79.0) 3,579 (84.2) 7,428 (79.4) 
 Black 184 (8.0) 520 (5.0) 248 (5.8) 674 (7.2) 
 Hispanic 314 (13.7) 1,287 (12.3) 261 (6.1) 906 (9.7) 
 Other/multiple 114 (5.0) 385 (3.7) 165 (3.9) 341 (3.8) 
AGI (0–3 days)b 119 (5.0) 432 (4.0) 122 (2.7) 226 (2.3) 
Any GI symptoms (0–3 days) 146 (6.1) 524 (4.8) 145 (3.3) 299 (3.1) 
Responses to symptoms, n (%) 
 OTC 83 (56.9) 290 (55.6) 85 (58.6) 163 (54.2) 
 Prescription 24 (16.6) 50 (9.5) 18 (12.5) 40 (13.4) 
 Contact with HCP 32 (21.9) 76 (14.5) 25 (17.4) 58 (19.4) 
 ED/Hospitalization 4 (2.7) 7 (1.3) 4 (2.8) 7 (2.3) 
 Missed work/activities 54 (37.0) 205 (39.1) 57 (39.3) 113 (37.8) 
Duration of GI symptoms, mean (median) 2.8 (2.0) 3.1 (2.0) 3.0 (2.0) 3.3 (2.0) 
GI SDsc, mean (median) 5.7 (4.0) 6.4 (4.0) 5.9 (4.0) 6.5 (4.0) 
Total SDsd, mean (median) 9.3 (6.0) 8.9 (6.0) 9.3 (6.0) 10.0 (6.0) 

aExcludes those with baseline GI symptoms.

bMeet case definition for AGI.

cSummation of days of enteric illness (nausea, stomach ache, diarrhea, vomiting).

dSummation of total days of enteric (GI) and non-enteric illness (respiratory, ear, eye, skin).

Table 2

Demographics and symptoms by water exposure among CHEERS participantsa

 Swallow water (n = 284)Body wetness (n = 4,748)No water contact (n = 2,498)Non-water recreators (n = 3,468)
Age (years) 
 0–10 4 (1.4) 211 (4.4) 256 (10.3) 200 (5.8) 
 11–19 29 (10.2) 586 (12.3) 344 (13.8) 244 (7.0) 
 20–54 221 (77.8) 3,336 (70.3) 1,439 (57.6) 2,347 (67.7) 
  ≥ 55 30 (10.6) 615 (13.0) 459 (18.4) 675 (19.5) 
Sex 
 Male 165 (58.1) 2,671 (56.3) 1,287 (51.5) 1,703 (49.1) 
 Female 119 (41.9) 2,077 (43.7) 1,211 (48.5) 1,765 (50.9) 
Race 
 White 227 (79.9) 3,917 (82.6) 1,839 (73.7) 2,202 (63.6) 
 Black 8 (2.8) 129 (2.7) 270 (10.8) 553 (16.0) 
 Hispanic 16 (5.6) 257 (5.4) 164 (6.6) 321 (9.3) 
 Other/multiple 33 (11.6) 441 (9.3) 222 (8.9) 385 (11.1) 
AGI (0–3 days)b 18 (5.9) 203 (4.2) 94 (3.6) 116 (3.2) 
Any GI symptoms (0–3 days) (CHEERS definition)c 45 (14.9) 480 (9.9) 212 (8.3) 291 (8.1) 
Any GI symptoms (0–3 days) (NEEAR definition)d 38 (12.6) 381 (7.8) 162 (6.4) 223 (6.2) 
Responses to symptoms, n (%) 
 OTC 21 (55.3) 190 (49.9) 86 (53.1) 125 (56.1) 
 Prescription 0 (0.0) 17 (4.5) 7 (4.3) 25 (11.2) 
 Contact with HCP 4 (10.5) 34 (8.9) 16 (10.0) 43 (19.3) 
 ED/Hospitalization 1 (2.6) 2 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 8 (3.6) 
 Missed work/activities 15 (39.4) 108 (28.4) 56 (34.6) 82 (36.7) 
Duration of GI symptoms, mean (median) 3.0 (2.0) 2.5 (2.0) 2.5 (2.0) 2.7 (2.0) 
GI SDse, mean (median) 5.0 (3.0) 4.4 (2.0) 4.6 (2.0) 4.3 (2.5) 
Total SDsf, mean (median) 5.8 (3.0) 5.3 (3.0) 5.2 (3.0) 5.4 (3.0) 
 Swallow water (n = 284)Body wetness (n = 4,748)No water contact (n = 2,498)Non-water recreators (n = 3,468)
Age (years) 
 0–10 4 (1.4) 211 (4.4) 256 (10.3) 200 (5.8) 
 11–19 29 (10.2) 586 (12.3) 344 (13.8) 244 (7.0) 
 20–54 221 (77.8) 3,336 (70.3) 1,439 (57.6) 2,347 (67.7) 
  ≥ 55 30 (10.6) 615 (13.0) 459 (18.4) 675 (19.5) 
Sex 
 Male 165 (58.1) 2,671 (56.3) 1,287 (51.5) 1,703 (49.1) 
 Female 119 (41.9) 2,077 (43.7) 1,211 (48.5) 1,765 (50.9) 
Race 
 White 227 (79.9) 3,917 (82.6) 1,839 (73.7) 2,202 (63.6) 
 Black 8 (2.8) 129 (2.7) 270 (10.8) 553 (16.0) 
 Hispanic 16 (5.6) 257 (5.4) 164 (6.6) 321 (9.3) 
 Other/multiple 33 (11.6) 441 (9.3) 222 (8.9) 385 (11.1) 
AGI (0–3 days)b 18 (5.9) 203 (4.2) 94 (3.6) 116 (3.2) 
Any GI symptoms (0–3 days) (CHEERS definition)c 45 (14.9) 480 (9.9) 212 (8.3) 291 (8.1) 
Any GI symptoms (0–3 days) (NEEAR definition)d 38 (12.6) 381 (7.8) 162 (6.4) 223 (6.2) 
Responses to symptoms, n (%) 
 OTC 21 (55.3) 190 (49.9) 86 (53.1) 125 (56.1) 
 Prescription 0 (0.0) 17 (4.5) 7 (4.3) 25 (11.2) 
 Contact with HCP 4 (10.5) 34 (8.9) 16 (10.0) 43 (19.3) 
 ED/Hospitalization 1 (2.6) 2 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 8 (3.6) 
 Missed work/activities 15 (39.4) 108 (28.4) 56 (34.6) 82 (36.7) 
Duration of GI symptoms, mean (median) 3.0 (2.0) 2.5 (2.0) 2.5 (2.0) 2.7 (2.0) 
GI SDse, mean (median) 5.0 (3.0) 4.4 (2.0) 4.6 (2.0) 4.3 (2.5) 
Total SDsf, mean (median) 5.8 (3.0) 5.3 (3.0) 5.2 (3.0) 5.4 (3.0) 

aExcludes those with baseline GI symptoms.

bMeet case definition for AGI.

cHave GI symptoms, but may or may not meet the case definition of illness; includes CHEERS participants who only reported ≤2 loose stools.

dHave GI symptoms, but may or may not meet the case definition of illness; excludes CHEERS participants who only reported ≤2 loose stools, to be more comparable to the NEEAR study.

eSummation of days of enteric illness (nausea, stomach ache, diarrhea, vomiting).

fSummation of total days of enteric (GI) and non-enteric illness (respiratory, ear, eye, skin).

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal