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Although the data in this paper are described in terms of geometric means and confidence limits because the data are logarithmically distributed, it is appropriate to state the overall mean as an arithmetic mean in order to compare it to contemporary published data. In this case, the arithmetic mean of water ingested by all swimmers was 32 mL. The geometric mean ingested volume for all swimmers was 14 mL with 95% confidence limits of 13 to 16 mL (Table 3). In Table 3 the ingestion volumes are shown by age group and gender. The tree analysis indicated that a natural cohort was formed by swimmers over the age of 15 years. We segregated this group by 10 year age intervals and also separated all swimmers by gender. These ingestion results show that the two younger age groups swallow significantly more water than the adult group; this is uniformly true for males and females. The data in the Table 3 are further illustrated in Figure 1.
Table 3

Geometric means and associated 95% confidence intervals for amount of water (mL) ingested by age group and gender

  NGeometric mean (mL)95% Cl
All swimmers 549 14 13 to 16 
  Females
Males
Age groupN
Geo. mean (mL) (95% Cl)
N
Geo. mean (mL) (95 Cl)
6 to 10 41 38 (27–54) 25 43 (28–65) 
11 to 15 39 20 (14–29) 82 25 (20–33) 
16 to 19 24 12 (8–18) 46 17 (13–23) 
20 to 29 47 10 (7–14) 39 15 (10–21) 
30 to 39 36 6 (5–9) 25 16 (11–25) 
40 to 49 45 11 (7–15) 30 11 (7–17) 
50+ 40 9 (6–14) 30 17 (10–29) 
  NGeometric mean (mL)95% Cl
All swimmers 549 14 13 to 16 
  Females
Males
Age groupN
Geo. mean (mL) (95% Cl)
N
Geo. mean (mL) (95 Cl)
6 to 10 41 38 (27–54) 25 43 (28–65) 
11 to 15 39 20 (14–29) 82 25 (20–33) 
16 to 19 24 12 (8–18) 46 17 (13–23) 
20 to 29 47 10 (7–14) 39 15 (10–21) 
30 to 39 36 6 (5–9) 25 16 (11–25) 
40 to 49 45 11 (7–15) 30 11 (7–17) 
50+ 40 9 (6–14) 30 17 (10–29) 
Figure 1

Geometric means and associated 95% confidence intervals for amount of water ingested by age and gender.

Figure 1

Geometric means and associated 95% confidence intervals for amount of water ingested by age and gender.

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