Study subjects were requested to spend an hour in the pool. However, the actual time spent in the pool, which was self-reported, varied considerably, with the range being between 47 minutes and 104 minutes. Table 4 shows the geometric mean values of the duration of time spent in the water and their associated 95% confidence intervals of the self-reported time spent in the pool. The rate of ingestion was calculated, based on the four comparisons of primary interests, mainly among the three age groups, plus between adult men and women. Statistical significance of individual comparisons was determined by the Holms test to achieve an overall critical value p = 0.05, Bonferroni adjusted for multiple comparisons. Table 4 shows results from analysis of variance on log values with respect to ingestion, time spent in the water, and the rates of ingestion that were determined to be significant by this criterion. Among age groups, all are significantly different from each other with respect to the amount of water ingested (p < 0.001 for adults versus either younger group). The volumes ingested by the two younger groups were also statistically different from each other (p < 0.007). The amount of water ingested among males and females also differed statistically (p < 0.001), with males ingesting a geometric mean of 13.7 mL while females ingested a geometric mean of 8.0 mL. Only the ingestion rates between children and teens and the time in the pool between females and males were not statistically significant.

Table 4

Geometric means and associated 95% confidence intervals for amount of water ingested, time spent in the pool, and implied ingestion rates by swimmer group

  Geometric means and 95% confidence intervals
Age groupGenderAmount ingested (mL)Time in the pool (mL per min)Ingestion rate (mL per h)
Children All 38.2 (28–52) 95.9 (88–104) 23.9 (17–33) 
Teens All 22.1 (17–28) 55.8 (52–59 23.7 (19–30) 
Adults All 10.4 (9–12) 50.3 (49–52) 12.4 (11–14) 
 Female 8 (7–10) 51.1 (49–54) 9.4 (8–11) 
 Male 13.7 (11–17) 49.5 (47–52) 16.4 (13–20) 
  Geometric means and 95% confidence intervals
Age groupGenderAmount ingested (mL)Time in the pool (mL per min)Ingestion rate (mL per h)
Children All 38.2 (28–52) 95.9 (88–104) 23.9 (17–33) 
Teens All 22.1 (17–28) 55.8 (52–59 23.7 (19–30) 
Adults All 10.4 (9–12) 50.3 (49–52) 12.4 (11–14) 
 Female 8 (7–10) 51.1 (49–54) 9.4 (8–11) 
 Male 13.7 (11–17) 49.5 (47–52) 16.4 (13–20) 

Differences between italic values are not significant. All other differences among age groups and gender are statistically significant at p < 0.01.

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