In the hospital discharge data, the annual number of deaths among patients ranged from 11 or fewer (i.e., below the limit of reporting for NIS data) for Campylobacter, Shigella, free-living ameba, and Vibrio spp., to 3,160 (95% CI 2,961–3,360) for Pseudomonas septicemia (Table 4). Among patients who died, median ages were lowest for Shigella (35 years), Cryptosporidium (39 years), free-living ameba (43 years), disseminated mycobacterium avium–intracellulare complex (MAC) (47 years), and Vibrio (54 years). For all other infections in this analysis, the median age of patients who died was 60 years and over. The highest proportions of patients with documented immune-compromising conditions were among patients who died with Cryptosporidium (86.2%), MAC (68.8%), Giardia (56.2%), and NTM (49.5%). Other conditions with more than a quarter of decedents with documented immune-compromising conditions were Campylobacter, Shigella, Legionnaires' disease, and Pseudomonas septicemia. As a percentage of all hospitalized cases (not shown), case fatality proportions were highest for free-living ameba infections (46.3%), Pseudomonas septicemia (17.3%), and Legionnaires' disease (7.9%).

Table 4

Average annual inpatient deaths among patients hospitalized with selected infections, based on weighted analyses, NIS, 2003–2009

InfectionNumber of deaths(95% CI)Age, median [Interquartile range]Percent immune-compromisedCase fatality proportion (%)
Transmission by fecal–oral route
Campylobacter 11 (6–16) 63 [58, 77] 36.9a 0.4
Cryptosporidium 46 (31–60) 39 [33, 51] 86.2 2.7
E. coli 34 (24–45) 73 [61, 84] 6.0a 1.8
Giardia 24 (16–32) 65 [47, 71] 56.2 1.3
Hepatitis A 206 (179–232) 60 [51, 76] 24.2 2.4
Salmonella 96 (79–113) 68 [52, 81] 24.0 1.1
Shigella <11a  35 [29, 70] 29.4a 0.3
Transmission by other routes
Free-living amebae <11a  43 [9, 48] 14.7a 46.3
Legionnaires' disease 244 (212–275) 68 [57, 79] 26.8 7.9
NTM 960 (861–1,059) 62 [43, 77] 49.5 6.0
MAC 412 (357–468) 47 [37, 69] 68.8 6.4
Pulmonary NTM 464 (410–519) 70 [55, 80] 34.7 6.2
Otitis externa 92 (75–108) 74 [62, 83] 15.4 0.6
Pseudomonas
Pneumonia 1,483 (1,385–1,580) 74 [64, 81] 17.6 6.6
Septicemia 3,160 (2,961–3,360) 68 [57, 78] 34.9 17.3
Vibrio <11a  54 [48, 65] 15.3a 5.3
InfectionNumber of deaths(95% CI)Age, median [Interquartile range]Percent immune-compromisedCase fatality proportion (%)
Transmission by fecal–oral route
Campylobacter 11 (6–16) 63 [58, 77] 36.9a 0.4
Cryptosporidium 46 (31–60) 39 [33, 51] 86.2 2.7
E. coli 34 (24–45) 73 [61, 84] 6.0a 1.8
Giardia 24 (16–32) 65 [47, 71] 56.2 1.3
Hepatitis A 206 (179–232) 60 [51, 76] 24.2 2.4
Salmonella 96 (79–113) 68 [52, 81] 24.0 1.1
Shigella <11a  35 [29, 70] 29.4a 0.3
Transmission by other routes
Free-living amebae <11a  43 [9, 48] 14.7a 46.3
Legionnaires' disease 244 (212–275) 68 [57, 79] 26.8 7.9
NTM 960 (861–1,059) 62 [43, 77] 49.5 6.0
MAC 412 (357–468) 47 [37, 69] 68.8 6.4
Pulmonary NTM 464 (410–519) 70 [55, 80] 34.7 6.2
Otitis externa 92 (75–108) 74 [62, 83] 15.4 0.6
Pseudomonas
Pneumonia 1,483 (1,385–1,580) 74 [64, 81] 17.6 6.6
Septicemia 3,160 (2,961–3,360) 68 [57, 78] 34.9 17.3
Vibrio <11a  54 [48, 65] 15.3a 5.3

Note: Analyses based on the all-listed diagnosis, except Pseudomonas pneumonia, which is based on principal diagnosis only. See text for details.

aCell counts less than 11 suppressed.

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