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The BAC media employed at the Kyneton WTP and the Bendigo WTP is a mixture of thermally activated sub-bituminous coal (GS1300) and anthracite (GA1000N) (Table 1) (Activated Carbon Technologies Pty Ltd). BAC media was collected at the surface, 1 m depth and 2 m depth from one filter unit (BAC 3) at the Kyneton WTP during May 2015. BAC was also collected at the surface, 1 m depth and 2 m depth from one filter unit (BAC 6) at the Bendigo WTP during May 2015. All samples were immediately transferred to 4 °C storage. Over the last 13 years, iron concentrations in the BAC filter influent at the Kyneton WTP and the Bendigo WTP have been in the range 0.4 mg/L to 0.5 mg/L while manganese concentrations have been between 0.001 mg/L and 0.002 mg/L.

Table 1

The characteristics of BAC media and zeolite media. GC1200, GA1000N and GS1300 represent the material codes employed by Activated Carbon Technologies Pty Ltd. Error range represents ± one standard deviation

GAC materialsGC1200GA1000NGS1300Ammonium exchanged zeolite
Raw material Coconut husk Anthracite coal Sub-bituminous coal Clinoptilolite 
Activation Thermal Thermal Thermal a 
Physical form Granular Granular Granular Granular 
Site of application Antarctica Kyneton WTP and Bendigo WTP Kyneton WTP and Bendigo WTP Antarctica 
Particle size range (μm) 2,360–850 2,360–850 2,360–850 2,360–850 
BET surface area (m2/g) 1,137 1,275 1,425 13 
Total pore volume (cm3/g) 0.458 0.649 0.933 0.01 
Microporous fraction (%) 100 68 47 14 
Mesoporous fraction (%) 32 53 a 
Total ash content (%) 2.47 ± 0.37 5.25 ± 0.06 10.84 ± 0.23 a 
Contact pH (ASTM D6851) 10.71 ± 0.09 7.44 ± 0.03 7.92 ± 0.02 7.52 ± 0.10 
GAC materialsGC1200GA1000NGS1300Ammonium exchanged zeolite
Raw material Coconut husk Anthracite coal Sub-bituminous coal Clinoptilolite 
Activation Thermal Thermal Thermal a 
Physical form Granular Granular Granular Granular 
Site of application Antarctica Kyneton WTP and Bendigo WTP Kyneton WTP and Bendigo WTP Antarctica 
Particle size range (μm) 2,360–850 2,360–850 2,360–850 2,360–850 
BET surface area (m2/g) 1,137 1,275 1,425 13 
Total pore volume (cm3/g) 0.458 0.649 0.933 0.01 
Microporous fraction (%) 100 68 47 14 
Mesoporous fraction (%) 32 53 a 
Total ash content (%) 2.47 ± 0.37 5.25 ± 0.06 10.84 ± 0.23 a 
Contact pH (ASTM D6851) 10.71 ± 0.09 7.44 ± 0.03 7.92 ± 0.02 7.52 ± 0.10 

aIndicates non-reliable measurement or parameter not relevant to this material.

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