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Table 1 shows the summary of characteristics of households recruited in this study. The mean age of the 103 household heads was 21.59 years (range 18–29 years) with slightly under a quarter (42.7%) aged 21–30 years. About 68.9% of households were located in rural areas, with 95.1% of them being female headed. About 57.3% had primary level education, 27.2% were farmers, while 54.4% had children below 5 years of age. Close to 36.9% of the households sourced their drinking water from rivers. Nearly all of them (91.3%) did not treat their drinking water, with 81.6% stating that their drinking water was clean regardless of the source. Most of the households (64.1%) stored the drinking water for more than 2 days, with the majority (83.5%) of them drawing drinking water by dipping the cup into the water storage container. Nearly half of the households reported having contact with drinking water during drawing. Some 60.2% used clay pots for water storage, with 64.1% of them never washing these storage containers.

Table 1

Characteristics of the study population

Household characteristicsUnitFrequencyPercentage
Locality Rural 71 68.9 
Urban 32 31.1 
Gender Female 98 95.1 
Male 4.9 
Age group <20 7.8 
21–30 44 42.7 
31–40 25 24.3 
41–50 10 9.7 
>51 16 15.5 
Education level Primary 59 57.3 
Secondary 25 24.3 
Tertiary 11 10.7 
Non-formal 7.8 
Occupation Business 18 17.5 
Employee/Laborer 17 16.5 
Farmer 28 27.2 
Housewife 25 24.3 
Student/Unemployed 15 14.6 
Have children below 5 years Yes 56 54.4 
No 47 45.6 
Consider drinking water source safe Yes 95 92.2 
No 1.0 
Do not know 6.8 
Treatment of water Boil 2.9 
Filtration 3.9 
Water guard 1.9 
Do not treat 94 91.3 
Reasons for not treating water Lack of knowledge 5.8 
Water is clean 84 81.6 
Time consuming and costly 1.9 
Not applicable 11 10.7 
Water storage period 1 day 21 20.4 
2 days 16 15.5 
More than 2 days 66 64.1 
Method for drawing drinking water Dip into container 86 83.5 
Pour directly from container/use tap 17 16.5 
Hand contact with drinking water Yes 44 42.7 
No 59 57.3 
Water storage container Clay pot 62 60.2 
Plastic 41 39.8 
Wash hands before drawing water Yes 42 40.8 
No 61 59.2 
Rinse water drawing utensils Yes 99 96.1 
No 3.9 
Type of toilet facility Piped sewer system/septic tank/pit latrine 5.8 
Pit latrine without slab/open pit 51 49.5 
Ventilated improved pit latrine 5.8 
Bush/field 15 14.6 
Shared facility 25 24.3 
Toilet cleanliness Clean (no flies nor visible fecal matter) 16 15.5 
Moderately clean(flies but no visible fecal matter) 33 32 
Dirty(flies and visible fecal matter) 14 13.6 
Not applicable 40 38.8 
Disposal of children's feces Put in the latrine 32 31.1 
Put/rinsed into drain or ditch 19 18.4 
Thrown into garbage 3.9 
Not applicable 48 46.6 
Household characteristicsUnitFrequencyPercentage
Locality Rural 71 68.9 
Urban 32 31.1 
Gender Female 98 95.1 
Male 4.9 
Age group <20 7.8 
21–30 44 42.7 
31–40 25 24.3 
41–50 10 9.7 
>51 16 15.5 
Education level Primary 59 57.3 
Secondary 25 24.3 
Tertiary 11 10.7 
Non-formal 7.8 
Occupation Business 18 17.5 
Employee/Laborer 17 16.5 
Farmer 28 27.2 
Housewife 25 24.3 
Student/Unemployed 15 14.6 
Have children below 5 years Yes 56 54.4 
No 47 45.6 
Consider drinking water source safe Yes 95 92.2 
No 1.0 
Do not know 6.8 
Treatment of water Boil 2.9 
Filtration 3.9 
Water guard 1.9 
Do not treat 94 91.3 
Reasons for not treating water Lack of knowledge 5.8 
Water is clean 84 81.6 
Time consuming and costly 1.9 
Not applicable 11 10.7 
Water storage period 1 day 21 20.4 
2 days 16 15.5 
More than 2 days 66 64.1 
Method for drawing drinking water Dip into container 86 83.5 
Pour directly from container/use tap 17 16.5 
Hand contact with drinking water Yes 44 42.7 
No 59 57.3 
Water storage container Clay pot 62 60.2 
Plastic 41 39.8 
Wash hands before drawing water Yes 42 40.8 
No 61 59.2 
Rinse water drawing utensils Yes 99 96.1 
No 3.9 
Type of toilet facility Piped sewer system/septic tank/pit latrine 5.8 
Pit latrine without slab/open pit 51 49.5 
Ventilated improved pit latrine 5.8 
Bush/field 15 14.6 
Shared facility 25 24.3 
Toilet cleanliness Clean (no flies nor visible fecal matter) 16 15.5 
Moderately clean(flies but no visible fecal matter) 33 32 
Dirty(flies and visible fecal matter) 14 13.6 
Not applicable 40 38.8 
Disposal of children's feces Put in the latrine 32 31.1 
Put/rinsed into drain or ditch 19 18.4 
Thrown into garbage 3.9 
Not applicable 48 46.6 

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