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Table 3 summarizes the factors associated with TTC contamination (>10 cfu/100 mL) of household drinking water. In the bivariate analyses, drinking water of households located in the rural set-up were more likely to have TTC contamination than households located in the urban areas (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.09–4.12). Households with a piped water supply or water from a municipal source were less likely to have TTC contamination than those households whose source of water was from a river/spring (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.16–0.91). Households which reported hand contact with drinking water during withdrawal were more likely to be contaminated with TTC compared to households which had no hand contact during water withdrawal (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.11–3.39). Households that washed their water storage containers regularly were less likely to be contaminated with TTC than those households who did not wash the water storage container (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.31–0.99). Households who practiced hand washing before drawing drinking water were less likely to have TTC contamination than those households that did not wash hands (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.15–0.67). Households whose total coliform count was less than 10 cfu/100 mL were less likely to have TTC drinking water contamination than those households with more than 10 cfu/100 mL (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.26–0.81). Further, households whose main water source temperatures were between 15 and 20 °C were less likely to have TTC drinking water contamination than those households with water source temperatures greater than 25.1 °C (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.16–0.96). Lastly, households whose main water source had a free chlorine concentration of less than 1 mg/L were less likely to have their drinking water contaminated with TTC compared to households with a water source free chlorine concentration of above 1 mg/L (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24–0.71).

Table 3

Factors associated with household drinking water TTC contamination

  Drinking water TTC contamination
BivariateMultivariate
Socio-demographic characteristicSample sizeNo.%OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Locality 
 Rural 71 39 54.9 2.01 (1.09–4.12) 1.13 (0.12–10.37) 
 Urban 32 28.2 Referent Referent 
Education level 
 Primary 59 29 49.2 0.99 (0.54–1.82) 1.23 (0.52–2.91) 
 Secondary 25 11 44 0.96 (0.49–1.84) 1.13 (0.44–2.91) 
 Tertiary 11 36.4 0.91 (0.42–1.94) 1.33 (0.44–4.06) 
 Non-formal 50 Referent Referent 
Stay with child below 5 years 
 Yes 56 20 35.7 0.85 (0.62–1.17) NS 
 No 47 28 59.5 Referent Referent 
Main drinking water source water 
 Piped supply/municipal 34 26.5 0.38 (0.16–0.91) 0.78 (0.33–1.87) 
 Rain water/roof catchment 12 50 0.73 (0.52–1.92) 0.89 (0.39–2.02) 
 River 38 21 55.3 0.81 (0.41–1.61) 0.98 (0.58–1.63) 
 Spring 19 12 63.2 Referent Referent 
How do you treat drinking water 
 Boil 66.7 1.04 (0.34–3.18) 0.95 (0.22–4.1) 
 Filtration 66.7 0.62 (0.07–4.99) 0.61 (0.07–5.09) 
 Water guard 0.91 (0.44–1.85) 1.11 (0.32–3.92) 
 Do not treat 94 43 45.7 Referent Referent 
Water storage period 
 1 day 21 38.1 0.92 (0.54–1.58) 0.88 (0.48–1.61) 
 2 days 16 50.0 1.01 (0.65–1.57) 0.99 (0.59–1.67) 
 More than 2 days 66 32 48.4 Referent Referent 
Hand contact with drinking water 
 Yes 36 24 66.7 1.11 (1.11–3.39) 1.19 (0.77–1.83) 
 No 67 24 35.8 Referent Referent 
Type of water storage container 
 Clay pot 62 31 50 1.06 (0.76–1.47) NS 
 Plastic 41 17 41.6 Referent  
Washing of water storage container 
 Yes 37 12 32.4 0.58 (0.31–0.99) NS 
 No 66 36 54.6 Referent  
Household kind of toilet facility 
 Piped sewer system/septic tank/pit latrine 33.3 0.92 (0.43–1.99)  
 Pit latrine without slab/open pit 51 22 43.1 0.99 (0.66–1.48) NS 
 Ventilated improved pit latrine 33.3 0.92 (0.43–1.99)  
 Bush/field 15 11 73.3 1.2 (0.72–1.99)  
 Shared facility 25 11 44 Referent  
Wash hands before drawing water 
 Yes 42 21.4 0.33 (0.15–0.67) NS 
 No 61 39 63.9 Referent  
Household total coliforms (cfu/100 mL) 
  ≤ 10 cfu/100 mL 17 0.45 (0.26–0.81) NS 
  > 10 cfu/100 mL 86 48 55.8 Referent  
 Water source temperature (°C)      
 15–20 47 12 25.5 0.39 (0.16–0.96)  
 20.1–25 41 20 48.8 0.67 (0.29–1.52) NS 
  > 25.1 100 Referent  
Water source pH 
 5–7 24 14 58.3 1.1 (0.76–1.59) NS 
  > 7.1 79 34 43 Referent  
Water source free chlorine (mg/L) 
  ≤ 1 80 33 41.3 0.41 (0.24–0.71) NS 
  > 1.1 23 23 100 Referent  
  Drinking water TTC contamination
BivariateMultivariate
Socio-demographic characteristicSample sizeNo.%OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Locality 
 Rural 71 39 54.9 2.01 (1.09–4.12) 1.13 (0.12–10.37) 
 Urban 32 28.2 Referent Referent 
Education level 
 Primary 59 29 49.2 0.99 (0.54–1.82) 1.23 (0.52–2.91) 
 Secondary 25 11 44 0.96 (0.49–1.84) 1.13 (0.44–2.91) 
 Tertiary 11 36.4 0.91 (0.42–1.94) 1.33 (0.44–4.06) 
 Non-formal 50 Referent Referent 
Stay with child below 5 years 
 Yes 56 20 35.7 0.85 (0.62–1.17) NS 
 No 47 28 59.5 Referent Referent 
Main drinking water source water 
 Piped supply/municipal 34 26.5 0.38 (0.16–0.91) 0.78 (0.33–1.87) 
 Rain water/roof catchment 12 50 0.73 (0.52–1.92) 0.89 (0.39–2.02) 
 River 38 21 55.3 0.81 (0.41–1.61) 0.98 (0.58–1.63) 
 Spring 19 12 63.2 Referent Referent 
How do you treat drinking water 
 Boil 66.7 1.04 (0.34–3.18) 0.95 (0.22–4.1) 
 Filtration 66.7 0.62 (0.07–4.99) 0.61 (0.07–5.09) 
 Water guard 0.91 (0.44–1.85) 1.11 (0.32–3.92) 
 Do not treat 94 43 45.7 Referent Referent 
Water storage period 
 1 day 21 38.1 0.92 (0.54–1.58) 0.88 (0.48–1.61) 
 2 days 16 50.0 1.01 (0.65–1.57) 0.99 (0.59–1.67) 
 More than 2 days 66 32 48.4 Referent Referent 
Hand contact with drinking water 
 Yes 36 24 66.7 1.11 (1.11–3.39) 1.19 (0.77–1.83) 
 No 67 24 35.8 Referent Referent 
Type of water storage container 
 Clay pot 62 31 50 1.06 (0.76–1.47) NS 
 Plastic 41 17 41.6 Referent  
Washing of water storage container 
 Yes 37 12 32.4 0.58 (0.31–0.99) NS 
 No 66 36 54.6 Referent  
Household kind of toilet facility 
 Piped sewer system/septic tank/pit latrine 33.3 0.92 (0.43–1.99)  
 Pit latrine without slab/open pit 51 22 43.1 0.99 (0.66–1.48) NS 
 Ventilated improved pit latrine 33.3 0.92 (0.43–1.99)  
 Bush/field 15 11 73.3 1.2 (0.72–1.99)  
 Shared facility 25 11 44 Referent  
Wash hands before drawing water 
 Yes 42 21.4 0.33 (0.15–0.67) NS 
 No 61 39 63.9 Referent  
Household total coliforms (cfu/100 mL) 
  ≤ 10 cfu/100 mL 17 0.45 (0.26–0.81) NS 
  > 10 cfu/100 mL 86 48 55.8 Referent  
 Water source temperature (°C)      
 15–20 47 12 25.5 0.39 (0.16–0.96)  
 20.1–25 41 20 48.8 0.67 (0.29–1.52) NS 
  > 25.1 100 Referent  
Water source pH 
 5–7 24 14 58.3 1.1 (0.76–1.59) NS 
  > 7.1 79 34 43 Referent  
Water source free chlorine (mg/L) 
  ≤ 1 80 33 41.3 0.41 (0.24–0.71) NS 
  > 1.1 23 23 100 Referent  

No., number; %, percentage; TTC, thermotolerant coliforms; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; NS, not significant.

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