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The bivariate correlation analysis method is applied to describe the degree of relation of hydrogeochemical parameters (Ugbaja et al. 2012). The results of the correlation analysis are given in Table 5. A high correlation coefficient (near 1 or −1) means a good relationship between two variables and its value around zero means no relationship between them at a significance level of p < 0.05. More precisely, it can be said that parameters showing r > 0.7 are considered to be strongly correlated whereas r between 0.5 and 0.7 shows moderate correlation (Kumar et al. 2006). The relationship between various elements has been studied using Spearman rank coefficient which is based on the ranking of the data in this study.

Table 5

Spearman rank correlation matrix (r)

  TTDSECpHNaCaMgKHCO3ClSO4FNO3PO4NH4AsBrFe
1.00                  
TDS 0.60 1.00                 
EC 0.53 0.87 1.00                
pH 0.48 0.28 0.27 1.00               
Na 0.11 0.42 0.26 −0.46 1.00              
Ca 0.66 0.75 0.72 0.28 0.19 1.00             
Mg 0.64 0.74 0.70 0.46 0.15 0.54 1.00            
−0.06 0.23 0.12 0.59 0.85 0.10 0.01 1.00           
HCO3 0.72 0.77 0.68 0.17 0.41 0.71 0.76 0.29 1.00          
Cl 0.42 0.72 0.57 0.01 0.68 0.33 0.49 0.46 0.52 1.00         
SO4 0.33 0.53 0.45 0.05 0.51 0.71 0.32 0.52 0.47 0.37 1.00        
0.13 0.27 0.12 0.37 0.83 0.35 0.03 0.81 0.36 0.45 0.68 1.00       
NO3 0.24 0.00 0.03 0.41 0.32 0.13 0.36 0.19 0.11 0.11 0.20 0.21 1.00      
PO4 0.42 0.52 0.52 0.36 0.07 0.51 0.33 0.26 0.51 0.28 0.04 0.01 0.22 1.00     
NH4 0.18 0.20 0.23 0.45 0.15 0.23 0.32 0.44 0.24 0.06 0.23 0.15 0.03 0.79 1.00    
As 0.22 0.26 0.09 0.40 0.72 0.22 0.11 0.81 0.53 0.41 0.40 0.69 0.00 0.02 0.23 1.00   
Br 0.43 0.01 0.01 0.69 0.43 0.40 0.30 0.43 0.27 0.30 0.03 0.08 0.41 0.35 0.49 0.11 1.00  
Fe 0.38 0.13 0.06 0.54 0.42 0.25 0.33 0.23 0.14 0.06 0.05 0.21 0.65 0.11 0.01 0.00 0.58 1.00 
  TTDSECpHNaCaMgKHCO3ClSO4FNO3PO4NH4AsBrFe
1.00                  
TDS 0.60 1.00                 
EC 0.53 0.87 1.00                
pH 0.48 0.28 0.27 1.00               
Na 0.11 0.42 0.26 −0.46 1.00              
Ca 0.66 0.75 0.72 0.28 0.19 1.00             
Mg 0.64 0.74 0.70 0.46 0.15 0.54 1.00            
−0.06 0.23 0.12 0.59 0.85 0.10 0.01 1.00           
HCO3 0.72 0.77 0.68 0.17 0.41 0.71 0.76 0.29 1.00          
Cl 0.42 0.72 0.57 0.01 0.68 0.33 0.49 0.46 0.52 1.00         
SO4 0.33 0.53 0.45 0.05 0.51 0.71 0.32 0.52 0.47 0.37 1.00        
0.13 0.27 0.12 0.37 0.83 0.35 0.03 0.81 0.36 0.45 0.68 1.00       
NO3 0.24 0.00 0.03 0.41 0.32 0.13 0.36 0.19 0.11 0.11 0.20 0.21 1.00      
PO4 0.42 0.52 0.52 0.36 0.07 0.51 0.33 0.26 0.51 0.28 0.04 0.01 0.22 1.00     
NH4 0.18 0.20 0.23 0.45 0.15 0.23 0.32 0.44 0.24 0.06 0.23 0.15 0.03 0.79 1.00    
As 0.22 0.26 0.09 0.40 0.72 0.22 0.11 0.81 0.53 0.41 0.40 0.69 0.00 0.02 0.23 1.00   
Br 0.43 0.01 0.01 0.69 0.43 0.40 0.30 0.43 0.27 0.30 0.03 0.08 0.41 0.35 0.49 0.11 1.00  
Fe 0.38 0.13 0.06 0.54 0.42 0.25 0.33 0.23 0.14 0.06 0.05 0.21 0.65 0.11 0.01 0.00 0.58 1.00 

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