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A summary of boundary conditions used in the CFD modelling cases is shown in Table 3.

Table 3

Boundary conditions for free, shallow and confined jet cases

Boundary typeFree jetShallow jetConfined jet
Jet inlet Specified velocity (u), turbulence intensity (I), turbulence length scale (0.07 dSpecified velocity (u), turbulence intensity (I), turbulence length scale (0.07 dSpecified velocity (u), turbulence intensity (I), turbulence length scale (0.07 d
Tank outlet n/a Specified pressure (0 Pa), turbulence intensity (0.05%), viscosity ratio (1%) Specified pressure (0 Pa), turbulence intensity (0.05%), viscosity ratio (1%) 
Far-field Specified pressure (0 Pa), turbulence intensity (0.05%), viscosity ratio (1%) Specified pressure (0 Pa), turbulence intensity (0.05%), viscosity ratio (1%) n/a 
Solid surface No slip No slip No slip 
Free surface n/a Zero shear stress Zero shear stress 
Boundary typeFree jetShallow jetConfined jet
Jet inlet Specified velocity (u), turbulence intensity (I), turbulence length scale (0.07 dSpecified velocity (u), turbulence intensity (I), turbulence length scale (0.07 dSpecified velocity (u), turbulence intensity (I), turbulence length scale (0.07 d
Tank outlet n/a Specified pressure (0 Pa), turbulence intensity (0.05%), viscosity ratio (1%) Specified pressure (0 Pa), turbulence intensity (0.05%), viscosity ratio (1%) 
Far-field Specified pressure (0 Pa), turbulence intensity (0.05%), viscosity ratio (1%) Specified pressure (0 Pa), turbulence intensity (0.05%), viscosity ratio (1%) n/a 
Solid surface No slip No slip No slip 
Free surface n/a Zero shear stress Zero shear stress 

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