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Water which can be used for building purposes in concrete must be free from some factors that cause concrete degradation. The data of the chemical analyses of the groundwater samples in the studied area were compared with the standard limits (National Academy of Science 1972) presented in Table 12, showing that about 76% of the groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer and about 25% of that of the Miocene one can be used for building purposes.

Table 12

Limits for assessing the aggressiveness of water on concrete (National Academy of Science 1972)

Chemical constituentSlightly aggressive waterStrongly aggressive waterVery strongly aggressive water
pH 5.5–6.5 4.5–5.5 <4.5 
CO2 15–30 30–60 >6.5 mg 
NH4+/Kg 15–30 30–60 >60 
Mg2+/Kg 100–300 300–1,500 >1,500 
SO42−/Kg 200–600 600–2,500 >2,500 
Chemical constituentSlightly aggressive waterStrongly aggressive waterVery strongly aggressive water
pH 5.5–6.5 4.5–5.5 <4.5 
CO2 15–30 30–60 >6.5 mg 
NH4+/Kg 15–30 30–60 >60 
Mg2+/Kg 100–300 300–1,500 >1,500 
SO42−/Kg 200–600 600–2,500 >2,500 

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