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Table 1

Microorganisms, volumes and appropriate media used in this study

Volume analysed
MicroorganismsMethodaWastewaterSurface water (mL)Spring water (mL)
Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria Culture on HBSA 0.1 mL of a serial dilution 10–1–10–4 1, 10, 100 10, 100, 1,000 
Phages infecting Bacteroides host strainsb Plaque assay on BPRMA 1 mL 500 1,000 
Rhodococcus coprophilus Culture on modified MM3 10 mL 100  
LightCycler PCR 10 mL 100 200 
Streptococcus agalactiae LightCycler PCR after enrichment in Todd–Hewitt broth 10 mL 500 1,000 
Escherichia coli Culture on TSA and TBX 0.1 mL of a serial dilution 10–1–10–6 1, 10, 100 1, 10, 100 
Enterococci Culture on m-enterococcus agar and BEA NA 1, 10, 100 1, 10, 100 
Heterotrophic plate count Culture on plate count agar NA NA 0.1, 1 
Somatic coliphages Plaque assay on MSA 1 mL of a serial dilution 10–1–10–6 1, 10, 100 1, 10, 100 
Volume analysed
MicroorganismsMethodaWastewaterSurface water (mL)Spring water (mL)
Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria Culture on HBSA 0.1 mL of a serial dilution 10–1–10–4 1, 10, 100 10, 100, 1,000 
Phages infecting Bacteroides host strainsb Plaque assay on BPRMA 1 mL 500 1,000 
Rhodococcus coprophilus Culture on modified MM3 10 mL 100  
LightCycler PCR 10 mL 100 200 
Streptococcus agalactiae LightCycler PCR after enrichment in Todd–Hewitt broth 10 mL 500 1,000 
Escherichia coli Culture on TSA and TBX 0.1 mL of a serial dilution 10–1–10–6 1, 10, 100 1, 10, 100 
Enterococci Culture on m-enterococcus agar and BEA NA 1, 10, 100 1, 10, 100 
Heterotrophic plate count Culture on plate count agar NA NA 0.1, 1 
Somatic coliphages Plaque assay on MSA 1 mL of a serial dilution 10–1–10–6 1, 10, 100 1, 10, 100 

aAbbreviations of media: BPRMA: Bacteroides phage recovery medium agar; HBSA: human bifid sorbitol agar; TSA: tryptone soya agar; TBX: tryptone bile glucuronid agar; BEA: bile esculin agar; MSA: modified Scholtens' agar.

bBacteroides host strains: GA-17, GB-124, ARABA 84, ARABA 19, RBA 63, RBA 64, KBA 60, RYC 2056.

PCR, polymerase chain reaction; NA, not analysed.

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