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Table 3

Occurrence of universal and specific MST indicators in surface water

Upstream from wastewater treatment plantsDownstream from wastewater treatment plants
Lützel streamWeigistbach streamLützel streamWeigistbach stream
Nr. posMedian (range)aNr. posMedian (range)aNr. posMedian (range)aNr. posMedian (range)a
Universal indicator 
E. coli 5/5 1.7 × 103 (825–1 × 1055/5 245 (35–7.2 × 1045/5 2.8 × 104 (1 × 104–1 × 1055/5 2.4 × 104 (705–3 × 105
 Enterococci 5/5 1.5 × 103 (410–1.2 × 1055/5 470 (25–4.9 × 1045/5 5 × 103 (3.2 × 103–1 × 1055/5 1 × 104 (1.5 × 103–7.9 × 104
 Somatic coliphages 5/5 3.3 × 103 (525–2.1 × 1045/5 470 (40–4 × 1045/5 1.8 × 104 (4.9 × 103–2.9 × 1055/5 1.2 × 103 (70–4.1 × 104
 Phages of RYC 2056 5/5 6 (2–85) 0/5 n/a 4/5 25 (0–39) 2/4 4 (0–179) 
Human-specific MST indicator 
 Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteriab 1/5 0 (0–5) 0/5 n/a 5/5 700 (30–875) 4/5 140 (0–37,000) 
 Phages of GA-17 5/5 5 (2–32) 0/5 n/a 5/5 19 (3–25) 3/5 1 (1–77) 
 Phages of GB-124 5/5 13 (2–224) 1/5 0 (0–4) 4/5 15 (0–169) 1/5 0 (0–7) 
 Phages of ARABA 84 5/5 36 (35–1,196) 2/5 0 (0–7) 5/5 113 (17–384) 4/5 9 (0–216) 
 Phages of ARABA 19 1/5 0 (0–1) 0/5 n/a 1/4 0 (0–1) 0/4 n/a 
S. agalactiae 0/5 n/a 0/5 n/a 5/5 n.q. 5/5 n.q. 
Animal-specific MST indicator 
R. coprophilus (culture) 5/5 120 (40–430) 5/5 70 (15–250) 5/5 60 (18–205) 5/5 55 (10–320) 
R. coprophilus (PCR)c 0/5 n/a 2/5 0 (0–4.3 × 1040/5 n/a 2/5 0 (0–1.5 × 105
 Phages of KBA 60 2/5 0 (0–3) 3/5 1 (0–3) 2/5 0 (0–5) 1/5 0 (0–1) 
 Phages of RBA 63 0/5 n/a 1/5 0 (0–4) 0/5 n/a 1/5 0 (0–1) 
 Phages of RBA 64 0/5 n/a 1/5 0 (0–5) 1/5 0 (0–2) 2/5 0 (0–1) 
Upstream from wastewater treatment plantsDownstream from wastewater treatment plants
Lützel streamWeigistbach streamLützel streamWeigistbach stream
Nr. posMedian (range)aNr. posMedian (range)aNr. posMedian (range)aNr. posMedian (range)a
Universal indicator 
E. coli 5/5 1.7 × 103 (825–1 × 1055/5 245 (35–7.2 × 1045/5 2.8 × 104 (1 × 104–1 × 1055/5 2.4 × 104 (705–3 × 105
 Enterococci 5/5 1.5 × 103 (410–1.2 × 1055/5 470 (25–4.9 × 1045/5 5 × 103 (3.2 × 103–1 × 1055/5 1 × 104 (1.5 × 103–7.9 × 104
 Somatic coliphages 5/5 3.3 × 103 (525–2.1 × 1045/5 470 (40–4 × 1045/5 1.8 × 104 (4.9 × 103–2.9 × 1055/5 1.2 × 103 (70–4.1 × 104
 Phages of RYC 2056 5/5 6 (2–85) 0/5 n/a 4/5 25 (0–39) 2/4 4 (0–179) 
Human-specific MST indicator 
 Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteriab 1/5 0 (0–5) 0/5 n/a 5/5 700 (30–875) 4/5 140 (0–37,000) 
 Phages of GA-17 5/5 5 (2–32) 0/5 n/a 5/5 19 (3–25) 3/5 1 (1–77) 
 Phages of GB-124 5/5 13 (2–224) 1/5 0 (0–4) 4/5 15 (0–169) 1/5 0 (0–7) 
 Phages of ARABA 84 5/5 36 (35–1,196) 2/5 0 (0–7) 5/5 113 (17–384) 4/5 9 (0–216) 
 Phages of ARABA 19 1/5 0 (0–1) 0/5 n/a 1/4 0 (0–1) 0/4 n/a 
S. agalactiae 0/5 n/a 0/5 n/a 5/5 n.q. 5/5 n.q. 
Animal-specific MST indicator 
R. coprophilus (culture) 5/5 120 (40–430) 5/5 70 (15–250) 5/5 60 (18–205) 5/5 55 (10–320) 
R. coprophilus (PCR)c 0/5 n/a 2/5 0 (0–4.3 × 1040/5 n/a 2/5 0 (0–1.5 × 105
 Phages of KBA 60 2/5 0 (0–3) 3/5 1 (0–3) 2/5 0 (0–5) 1/5 0 (0–1) 
 Phages of RBA 63 0/5 n/a 1/5 0 (0–4) 0/5 n/a 1/5 0 (0–1) 
 Phages of RBA 64 0/5 n/a 1/5 0 (0–5) 1/5 0 (0–2) 2/5 0 (0–1) 

Nr. pos: number of positives of tested samples (analysed volumes according to Table 1).

n.q.: not quantified; n/a: not applicable.

aCFU/PFU/500 mL.

bValues were extrapolated and zero values refer to an initial volume of 100 mL.

cThe sample volume analysed per PCR reaction is in accordance with an initial sample volume of 2.5 mL.

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