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Table 5

Preventive measures to control general pathogen-related risks in the treatment process

No.MeasureHazard arising fromIdentified specific improvement planTime frame
2.1 Improve disinfection 
  • Requirements for residual-free chlorine >0.2 mg/L not met within the distribution system

  • Insufficient disinfection

 
  • Improve disinfection (residual chlorine >0.2 and <1.5 mg/L)

  • Increase chlorine contact time

  • Add additional chlorine injection points within the network

 
Medium 
2.2 Well management 
  • Not existing

 
  • Investigate well performance

  • Rehabilitate wells

  • Implement well operation philosophy

 
Medium Medium 
2.3 Improve distribution network 
  • Unrestricted tapping, insufficient pressure head

  • Wastewater ingress

 
  • Liaise with municipalities

  • Increase pressure, resolve leakages, restrict tapping

  • Increase public awareness to minimize water wastage (open and dripping taps)

 
Long 
No.MeasureHazard arising fromIdentified specific improvement planTime frame
2.1 Improve disinfection 
  • Requirements for residual-free chlorine >0.2 mg/L not met within the distribution system

  • Insufficient disinfection

 
  • Improve disinfection (residual chlorine >0.2 and <1.5 mg/L)

  • Increase chlorine contact time

  • Add additional chlorine injection points within the network

 
Medium 
2.2 Well management 
  • Not existing

 
  • Investigate well performance

  • Rehabilitate wells

  • Implement well operation philosophy

 
Medium Medium 
2.3 Improve distribution network 
  • Unrestricted tapping, insufficient pressure head

  • Wastewater ingress

 
  • Liaise with municipalities

  • Increase pressure, resolve leakages, restrict tapping

  • Increase public awareness to minimize water wastage (open and dripping taps)

 
Long 
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