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Table 1

Input parameters and abbreviations for cancer and non-cancer exposure assessment (Pardakhti et al. 2011; Lee et al. 2013)

Type of parameterParameterNotationUnitValueReferences
General THM conc. in water Cw μg/L Table This study 
 Average lifetime AT Days 64.2 × 365 (M), 67.9 × 365 (F) Lee et al. (2004)  
 Body weight BW kg 68.11 (M), 55.23 (F) Aslam et al. (2010)  
 Exposure duration ED Year 64.2 (M), 67.9 (F) Lee et al. (2004)  
 Exposure frequency EF Days/year 365 Lee et al. (2004)  
 Exposure time min/day 35 RAIS (2009)  
Oral ingestion Ingestion rate IR L/day USEPA (1997)  
Dermal Skin surface area (4BW + 7)/(BW + 90) SA m2 1.77 (M), 1.57 (F) USEPA (1997)  
 Shower frequency Shower/day  
 Permeability coefficient PC m/min 2.85 × 10−6 (chloroform), 9.79 × 10−7 (BDCM), 1.68 × 10−6 (DBCM), 1.20 × 10−6 (bromoform) Lee et al. (2013)  
 Fraction absorbed water for THMs   Lee et al. (2013)  
Inhalation absorption THM concentration in air Ca μg/L Equation Little (1992)  
 Air intake rate m3/min 0.015 (M), 0.012 (F) Lee et al. (2013)  
 Bathroom volume m3 4.78 Chen et al. (2003)  
 Water flow rate QW L/min 10 Little (1992)  
 Lag time per shower τ min/shower 30 (chloroform), 52.8 (BDCM), 94.2 (DBCM), 167.4 (bromoform) Lee et al. (2013)  
 Air change Ka min−1 0.021 Lee et al. (2013)  
 THM transformation rate from water to air Pv 8.76 Chowdhury& Champagne (2009)  
 Carcinogenic slope factor (oral/dermal) CSF mg kg−1 day−1 0.031 (chloroform), 0.062 (BDCM), 0.084 (DBCM), 0.0079 (bromoform) Pardakhti et al. (2011)  
 Carcinogenic slope factor (inhalation) CSF mg kg−1 day−1 8.05 × 10−5 (chloroform), 0.13 (BDCM), 0.095 (DBCM), 0.00385 (bromoform) Pardakhti et al. (2011)  
Hazard index Reference dose RfD mg kg−1 day−1 0.01 (chloroform), 0.02 (BDCM), 0.02 (DBCM), 0.02 (bromoform) Lee et al. (2004)  
Type of parameterParameterNotationUnitValueReferences
General THM conc. in water Cw μg/L Table This study 
 Average lifetime AT Days 64.2 × 365 (M), 67.9 × 365 (F) Lee et al. (2004)  
 Body weight BW kg 68.11 (M), 55.23 (F) Aslam et al. (2010)  
 Exposure duration ED Year 64.2 (M), 67.9 (F) Lee et al. (2004)  
 Exposure frequency EF Days/year 365 Lee et al. (2004)  
 Exposure time min/day 35 RAIS (2009)  
Oral ingestion Ingestion rate IR L/day USEPA (1997)  
Dermal Skin surface area (4BW + 7)/(BW + 90) SA m2 1.77 (M), 1.57 (F) USEPA (1997)  
 Shower frequency Shower/day  
 Permeability coefficient PC m/min 2.85 × 10−6 (chloroform), 9.79 × 10−7 (BDCM), 1.68 × 10−6 (DBCM), 1.20 × 10−6 (bromoform) Lee et al. (2013)  
 Fraction absorbed water for THMs   Lee et al. (2013)  
Inhalation absorption THM concentration in air Ca μg/L Equation Little (1992)  
 Air intake rate m3/min 0.015 (M), 0.012 (F) Lee et al. (2013)  
 Bathroom volume m3 4.78 Chen et al. (2003)  
 Water flow rate QW L/min 10 Little (1992)  
 Lag time per shower τ min/shower 30 (chloroform), 52.8 (BDCM), 94.2 (DBCM), 167.4 (bromoform) Lee et al. (2013)  
 Air change Ka min−1 0.021 Lee et al. (2013)  
 THM transformation rate from water to air Pv 8.76 Chowdhury& Champagne (2009)  
 Carcinogenic slope factor (oral/dermal) CSF mg kg−1 day−1 0.031 (chloroform), 0.062 (BDCM), 0.084 (DBCM), 0.0079 (bromoform) Pardakhti et al. (2011)  
 Carcinogenic slope factor (inhalation) CSF mg kg−1 day−1 8.05 × 10−5 (chloroform), 0.13 (BDCM), 0.095 (DBCM), 0.00385 (bromoform) Pardakhti et al. (2011)  
Hazard index Reference dose RfD mg kg−1 day−1 0.01 (chloroform), 0.02 (BDCM), 0.02 (DBCM), 0.02 (bromoform) Lee et al. (2004)  

M, male; F, female.

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