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As mentioned before, the main risk of using recovered coagulants is the accumulation of contaminants in sludge that are recycled in the recovery process of aluminum coagulants. To complete the picture regarding using recovered coagulants in water treatment safely without affecting the produced water quality, sequential (repeated) aluminum recovery was carried out by applying the optimum conditions for recovery using hydrochloric acid and then the produced waters were analyzed and are expressed in Table 5.

Table 5

Complete analysis for raw water and tap water in ESZ-WTP, jar test waters for commercial aluminum sulfate, first, second, and third recovery for aluminum coagulants using hydrochloric acids

No.ParameterUnitRaw waterTap waterJ.T.W.C.A.SC1C2C3
pH – 8.1 7.3 7.4 7.6 7.7 7.6 
Turbidity NTU 8.6 0.35 1.4 1.9 1.8 1.9 
Temperature °C 24.3 25.2 25.2 22.6 23.8 22.4 
Conductivity μS/cm 329 335 338 339 341 340 
Total dissolved solids mg/L 218 224 225 226 227 226 
Total alkalinity mg/L 147 126 126 134 134 134 
Chlorides mg/L 18 22 23 66 66 67 
Aluminum mg/L 0.05 0.15 0.18 0.17 0.21 0.19 
Iron mg/L 0.01 ND ND ND ND ND 
10 Manganese mg/L ND ND ND ND ND ND 
11 Total THMs mg/L ND 0.09 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 
12 Algae count Organism/mL 5,035 17 207 217 215 230 
13 Total plate count at 35 °C Cell/mL 2,830 32 43 37 45 
14 Total coliform bacteria Cell/mL 1,630 ND 150 190 210 180 
No.ParameterUnitRaw waterTap waterJ.T.W.C.A.SC1C2C3
pH – 8.1 7.3 7.4 7.6 7.7 7.6 
Turbidity NTU 8.6 0.35 1.4 1.9 1.8 1.9 
Temperature °C 24.3 25.2 25.2 22.6 23.8 22.4 
Conductivity μS/cm 329 335 338 339 341 340 
Total dissolved solids mg/L 218 224 225 226 227 226 
Total alkalinity mg/L 147 126 126 134 134 134 
Chlorides mg/L 18 22 23 66 66 67 
Aluminum mg/L 0.05 0.15 0.18 0.17 0.21 0.19 
Iron mg/L 0.01 ND ND ND ND ND 
10 Manganese mg/L ND ND ND ND ND ND 
11 Total THMs mg/L ND 0.09 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 
12 Algae count Organism/mL 5,035 17 207 217 215 230 
13 Total plate count at 35 °C Cell/mL 2,830 32 43 37 45 
14 Total coliform bacteria Cell/mL 1,630 ND 150 190 210 180 

ND: not detected; J.T.W.C.A.S: jar test water produced using virgin aluminum sulfate; C1: jar test water produced using recovered aluminum coagulant using HCl (first time); C2: jar test water produced using recovered aluminum coagulant using HCl (second time); C3: Jar test water produced using recovered aluminum coagulant using HCl (third time).

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