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Batch experiments were conducted for both preozonation and KMnO4 preoxidation. Certain amounts of preoxidants and/or coagulants were dosed into jars with a working volume of 1 L. After contacting under agitation using procedures described in Table 2, a 70 cm height quartz sand filter cylinder (sand diameter of 0.7 to 1.1 mm, cylinder made of plastic with a diameter of 35 mm) was applied at a constant speed of 8 m h−1. Samples were collected after those procedures for further measurements and analysis.

Table 2

Agitation procedures for bench scale experiments

StepsKMnO4 preoxidation
O3 preoxidation
Time (min)Speed (r min−1)DosageTime (min)Speed (r min−1)Dosage
30 60 KMnO4 6 s 300 Coagulants 
6 s 300 Coagulants 200 -a 
200 -a 100 -a 
100 -a 60 -a 
60 -a 20 -a 
20 -a       
StepsKMnO4 preoxidation
O3 preoxidation
Time (min)Speed (r min−1)DosageTime (min)Speed (r min−1)Dosage
30 60 KMnO4 6 s 300 Coagulants 
6 s 300 Coagulants 200 -a 
200 -a 100 -a 
100 -a 60 -a 
60 -a 20 -a 
20 -a       

aNo chemicals added.

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