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In 2015, two sampling campaigns were carried out over a year, during wet (3–15 February) and dry seasons (12–30 September). Four samples from each spring were taken at 3-day intervals during each campaign (values in Table 1 represent the mean value). E1, E2, E3, E5, E6 are managed springs, and E4 is a covered well with a depth of 15 m. The letter ‘H’ is used for wet season samples and the letter ‘S’ for the dry season. E6 was sampled only during the dry season.

Table 1

Physicochemical analysis of spring waters in the Massif Bokkoya

SampleE1
E2
E3
E4
E5
E6SeaWHO (2011) 
SeasonWetDryWetDryWetDryWetDryWetDryDry
pH 7.53 7.15 7.58 7.34 7.4 7.28 7.85 7.58 7.44 7.24 7.34 7.70 6.5–8.5a 
T (°C) 18.0  18.0  18.0  18.0  18.0   18.0 – 
EC (μs/cm) 1,366 1,187 2,430 2,130 2,230 2,690 594 602 1,802 1,993 2,110 56,000 1,250b 
TDS (mg/L) 1,288 989 2,231 2,104 2,528 3,110 444 531 1,828 1,958 1,878 – 1,000a 
Cl (mg/L) 468.5 355.0 507.6 454.4 1,075.7 1,008.2 131.4 113.6 411.8 390.6 820.7 19,675 250a 
(mg/L) 280.6 183.0 320.3 280.6 231.8 256.2 183.0 219.6 335.5 366.0 248.4 152.0 – 
(mg/L) 112.3 127.2 680.4 622.1 377.2 416.3 69.0 57.5 618.2 604.7 268.2 2,664.0 250a 
(mg/L) 21.3 22.5 35.2 40.2 63.4 71.4 24.1 26.3 9.2 10.0 55.6 ND 50 
Ca2+ (mg/L) 72.1 67.3 216.3 190.6 240.3 213.1 43.3 41.7 195.4 190.6 68.9 414.0 c 
Mg2+ (mg/L) 36.6 30.7 102.8 88.2 102.5 93.0 16.3 14.4 102.1 133.3 75.8 1,431 c 
Na+ (mg/L) 273.6 227.2 348.0 358.0 576.0 564.0 128.0 124.8 273.6 266.4 460.0 11,216 200a 
K+ (mg/L) 6.1 5.2 12.5 13.8 12.7 16.1 0.9 0.8 3.9 3.8 30.0 179.0 – 
SampleE1
E2
E3
E4
E5
E6SeaWHO (2011) 
SeasonWetDryWetDryWetDryWetDryWetDryDry
pH 7.53 7.15 7.58 7.34 7.4 7.28 7.85 7.58 7.44 7.24 7.34 7.70 6.5–8.5a 
T (°C) 18.0  18.0  18.0  18.0  18.0   18.0 – 
EC (μs/cm) 1,366 1,187 2,430 2,130 2,230 2,690 594 602 1,802 1,993 2,110 56,000 1,250b 
TDS (mg/L) 1,288 989 2,231 2,104 2,528 3,110 444 531 1,828 1,958 1,878 – 1,000a 
Cl (mg/L) 468.5 355.0 507.6 454.4 1,075.7 1,008.2 131.4 113.6 411.8 390.6 820.7 19,675 250a 
(mg/L) 280.6 183.0 320.3 280.6 231.8 256.2 183.0 219.6 335.5 366.0 248.4 152.0 – 
(mg/L) 112.3 127.2 680.4 622.1 377.2 416.3 69.0 57.5 618.2 604.7 268.2 2,664.0 250a 
(mg/L) 21.3 22.5 35.2 40.2 63.4 71.4 24.1 26.3 9.2 10.0 55.6 ND 50 
Ca2+ (mg/L) 72.1 67.3 216.3 190.6 240.3 213.1 43.3 41.7 195.4 190.6 68.9 414.0 c 
Mg2+ (mg/L) 36.6 30.7 102.8 88.2 102.5 93.0 16.3 14.4 102.1 133.3 75.8 1,431 c 
Na+ (mg/L) 273.6 227.2 348.0 358.0 576.0 564.0 128.0 124.8 273.6 266.4 460.0 11,216 200a 
K+ (mg/L) 6.1 5.2 12.5 13.8 12.7 16.1 0.9 0.8 3.9 3.8 30.0 179.0 – 

Only the guideline value is fixed for nitrate (50 mg/L) in consumable water (WHO 2011).

aIndicative limit for taste.

bindicative limit issue from relationship between TDS and EC.

cIndicative limit for hardness (Ca + Mg = 500 mg/L).

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