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There have been several long-term initiatives to remedy downstream impacts of large-scale water diversion, to reduce pollutant loads, and to improve the planning of multiple activities. Six case studies of multi-country initiatives from different regions have been reviewed to learn from these processes and to identify common challenges and successes. Table 2 provides an overview of these initiatives.

Table 2.

Case study overview.

Asia and the Pacific 
 Partnerships in Environmental Management of the Seas of East Asia (PEMSEA) The East Asian Seas region contains a number of large marine ecosystems (LMEs), sub-regional seas and their coastal areas. The GEF has invested for more than 20 years in assessing and improving the status of these LMEs. Work has included developing and implementing the Sustainable Development Strategy for the Seas of East Asia, which identifies ICM as a practical framework for sustainable development and provides an overarching framework for management of the region's LMEs. 
 Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem The Bay of Bengal large marine ecosystem (BOBLME) is one of the largest LMEs globally. A GEF-supported project in the BOBLME has started to establish enabling conditions for ecosystem-based management through developing collaboration among the participating countries. 
Europe and Central Asia 
 Danube River and Black Sea Collaboration In the 1970s and 1980s, the ecosystems of the western Black Sea collapsed as a combined effect of pollution and unregulated fishing. The link between Black Sea eutrophication and Danube river inflow was recognized in both the 1994 Bucharest Convention and the 1998 Danube River Protection Convention. Major improvements have since been documented in the status of the Black Sea. 
 Baltic Sea Collaboration Efforts to protect the semi-enclosed and brackish Baltic Sea through regional collaboration date back to 1960s. Decades of pollution control have resulted in cleaner beaches and healthier seafood, but the Baltic Sea remains the most eutrophic marine area in the world. Enabling conditions for better governance of the Baltic Sea have emerged over a long period. 
North and Latin America 
 Caribbean Small Island Developing States and Sea Basin – Integrated Watershed and Coastal Area Management (IWCAM) Water resources, coastal areas and ecosystems in the 13 Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Caribbean and in the larger Caribbean basin are exposed to a number of stressors. The GEF has supported a series of projects on integrated water and natural resources management in the Caribbean. 
 Colorado Basin and Delta, and Upper Gulf of California Early agreements to allocate the water of the Colorado River and its tributaries did not reserve water for ecosystems and did not include any water quality standards. As a result, the salinity in the Colorado River basin increased dramatically and the amount of water flowing into the sea was drastically reduced. Efforts to address some of the key environmental pressures include salinity control in the Colorado basin, ensuring environmental flows to the delta, regulating fisheries and strengthening marine area protection in the Gulf of California. 
Asia and the Pacific 
 Partnerships in Environmental Management of the Seas of East Asia (PEMSEA) The East Asian Seas region contains a number of large marine ecosystems (LMEs), sub-regional seas and their coastal areas. The GEF has invested for more than 20 years in assessing and improving the status of these LMEs. Work has included developing and implementing the Sustainable Development Strategy for the Seas of East Asia, which identifies ICM as a practical framework for sustainable development and provides an overarching framework for management of the region's LMEs. 
 Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem The Bay of Bengal large marine ecosystem (BOBLME) is one of the largest LMEs globally. A GEF-supported project in the BOBLME has started to establish enabling conditions for ecosystem-based management through developing collaboration among the participating countries. 
Europe and Central Asia 
 Danube River and Black Sea Collaboration In the 1970s and 1980s, the ecosystems of the western Black Sea collapsed as a combined effect of pollution and unregulated fishing. The link between Black Sea eutrophication and Danube river inflow was recognized in both the 1994 Bucharest Convention and the 1998 Danube River Protection Convention. Major improvements have since been documented in the status of the Black Sea. 
 Baltic Sea Collaboration Efforts to protect the semi-enclosed and brackish Baltic Sea through regional collaboration date back to 1960s. Decades of pollution control have resulted in cleaner beaches and healthier seafood, but the Baltic Sea remains the most eutrophic marine area in the world. Enabling conditions for better governance of the Baltic Sea have emerged over a long period. 
North and Latin America 
 Caribbean Small Island Developing States and Sea Basin – Integrated Watershed and Coastal Area Management (IWCAM) Water resources, coastal areas and ecosystems in the 13 Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Caribbean and in the larger Caribbean basin are exposed to a number of stressors. The GEF has supported a series of projects on integrated water and natural resources management in the Caribbean. 
 Colorado Basin and Delta, and Upper Gulf of California Early agreements to allocate the water of the Colorado River and its tributaries did not reserve water for ecosystems and did not include any water quality standards. As a result, the salinity in the Colorado River basin increased dramatically and the amount of water flowing into the sea was drastically reduced. Efforts to address some of the key environmental pressures include salinity control in the Colorado basin, ensuring environmental flows to the delta, regulating fisheries and strengthening marine area protection in the Gulf of California. 

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