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Historical individual events/actions of water cooperation/conflict from 1874 to 2014 were compiled into the database. The basin or the sub-basin involved in the event was noted, along with the issues dealt with in the event. Then, the events/actions were ranked by intensity, using precise definitions of conflict and cooperation as suggested by the TFDD under the BAR project. Each incident in the database included the following information:

Table 2.

Basin coding and description.

Basin codeBasin name
Gngs Ganges 
Kosi Kosi 
Kali Mahakali 
Krnl Karnali 
Gndk Gandak 
Maha Mahananda 
Basin codeBasin name
Gngs Ganges 
Kosi Kosi 
Kali Mahakali 
Krnl Karnali 
Gndk Gandak 
Maha Mahananda 
Table 3.

Issue area with description.

Issue areaDescription of issue areas
Water quality Events relating to water quality or water-related environmental concerns 
Water quantity Events relating to water quantity 
Hydropower Events relating to hydroelectricity or hydropower facilities 
Navigation Events relating to navigation, shipping, ports 
Fishing Events relating to fishing 
Flood control/relief Events relating to flooding, flood control, flood damage, flood relief 
Economic development General economic/regional development 
Joint management Events involving joint management of basin or water resources, especially where the management concerns cover a range of issue areas 
Irrigation Events relating to irrigation of agricultural areas 
10 Infrastructure/development Events relating to the infrastructure or development projects, including dams, barrages, draining of swamps for development purposes, canals 
11 Technical cooperation/assistance Events relating to technical or economic cooperation or assistance, including project evaluations or river surveys and funds for ranges of improvements to water-related technology/infrastructure 
12 Border issues Events relating to rivers as shared borders/boundaries 
13 Territorial issues Events relating to territorial claims, where the territory is associated with a water body, e.g., a river island 
Issue areaDescription of issue areas
Water quality Events relating to water quality or water-related environmental concerns 
Water quantity Events relating to water quantity 
Hydropower Events relating to hydroelectricity or hydropower facilities 
Navigation Events relating to navigation, shipping, ports 
Fishing Events relating to fishing 
Flood control/relief Events relating to flooding, flood control, flood damage, flood relief 
Economic development General economic/regional development 
Joint management Events involving joint management of basin or water resources, especially where the management concerns cover a range of issue areas 
Irrigation Events relating to irrigation of agricultural areas 
10 Infrastructure/development Events relating to the infrastructure or development projects, including dams, barrages, draining of swamps for development purposes, canals 
11 Technical cooperation/assistance Events relating to technical or economic cooperation or assistance, including project evaluations or river surveys and funds for ranges of improvements to water-related technology/infrastructure 
12 Border issues Events relating to rivers as shared borders/boundaries 
13 Territorial issues Events relating to territorial claims, where the territory is associated with a water body, e.g., a river island 
Table 4.

Water event intensity scale with CCLs adapted from Stahl (2005).

BAR scaleEvent descriptionCCLs
−7 Formal declaration of war Most conflictive 
−6 Extensive war acts causing deaths, dislocation or high strategic cost 
−5 Small scale military acts 
−4 Political-military hostile actions Conflictive 
−3 Diplomatic-economic hostile actions. Unilateral construction of water projects against another country's protests; reducing flow of water to another country; abrogation of a water agreement 
−2 Strong verbal expressions displaying hostility in interaction. Official interactions only 
−1 Mild verbal expressions displaying discord in interaction. Both unofficial and official, including diplomatic notes of protest Neutral 
Neutral or non-significant acts for the inter-nation situation 
Minor official exchanges, talks or policy expressions–mild verbal support 
Official verbal support of goals, values, or regime Cooperative 
Cultural or scientific agreement or support (nonstrategic). Agreements to set up cooperative working groups 
Non-military economic, technological or industrial agreement. Legal, cooperative actions between nations that are not treaties; cooperative projects for watershed management, irrigation, poverty-alleviation 
Military economic or strategic support Most cooperative 
Major strategic alliance (regional or international). International Freshwater Treaty 
Voluntary unification into one nation 
BAR scaleEvent descriptionCCLs
−7 Formal declaration of war Most conflictive 
−6 Extensive war acts causing deaths, dislocation or high strategic cost 
−5 Small scale military acts 
−4 Political-military hostile actions Conflictive 
−3 Diplomatic-economic hostile actions. Unilateral construction of water projects against another country's protests; reducing flow of water to another country; abrogation of a water agreement 
−2 Strong verbal expressions displaying hostility in interaction. Official interactions only 
−1 Mild verbal expressions displaying discord in interaction. Both unofficial and official, including diplomatic notes of protest Neutral 
Neutral or non-significant acts for the inter-nation situation 
Minor official exchanges, talks or policy expressions–mild verbal support 
Official verbal support of goals, values, or regime Cooperative 
Cultural or scientific agreement or support (nonstrategic). Agreements to set up cooperative working groups 
Non-military economic, technological or industrial agreement. Legal, cooperative actions between nations that are not treaties; cooperative projects for watershed management, irrigation, poverty-alleviation 
Military economic or strategic support Most cooperative 
Major strategic alliance (regional or international). International Freshwater Treaty 
Voluntary unification into one nation 

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