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After the database was created, the data could then be sorted and grouped, for example, by events, basin, macro-event, and/or intensity of events based on the BAR scale and even on temporal scales. The BAR scale categories and event descriptions are shown in Table 4. The conflict-cooperation levels (CCLs) were incorporated from the work of Stahl (2005). The 15 BAR-scale categories were aggregated to five CCLs ranging from ‘most conflictive’ to ‘most cooperative’ events (Table 4). The aggregated classes of each of the three grouped BAR scales denote violent conflict, political conflict, neutral verbal interactions, moderate cooperation, and active cooperation or treaty signature. This was included in the study to counter the anomalies of the average of all historic events on the conflict-cooperation scale, which could conceal a possible relation to events of specific intensity; whereas analysing only specific events, such as the extremes, ignores moderating information from the entire history. A sample of the structure of the event database is shown in Table 5.

Table 5.

Illustration of the structure of the event database.

S. No.DATEBCODEEVENT_SUMMARYISSUE_TYPE1ISSUE_TYPE2ISSUE_TYPE3BAR_SCALEMACRO_EVENT
1/1/1874 Kali Agree to maintain water levels of three reservoirs located on the international border 12  
2/12/1897 Kosi Kosi Barrage at Chatra approved by Nepal's PM 10  
6/1/1897 Kali Maintain the existing levels in the three reservoirs to be those of 1874 12  
5/14/1898 Kali Letter discussing the issue of three reservoirs more interestingly as a boundary dispute and maintenance of water levels in the reservoirs 12  
01-01-1901 Kali Seek permission for the survey of Mahakali (Sarada) River for Sarada – Ganges – Jamuna Feeder project (Banbasa Barrage) 11 Sarada Agreement 
01-01-1910 Kali Survey of Sarada (Mahakali) approved 11 Sarada Agreement 
03-05-1916 Kali Request for Nepalese territory to tie up the left or eastern flank of the Sarada River to higher ground in Nepal 10 Sarada Agreement 
23-08-1920 Kali Request approved on Sarada Barrage, in exchange of 4,093.88 acre land 10 Sarada Agreement 
01-01-1922 Kosi Construction of Chandra Canal in Nepal on Trijuga Khola River under the supervision of British engineer 11  
10 01-01-1928 Kali Banbasa Barrage completed and inaugurated on the Sarada River 10 Sarada Agreement 
S. No.DATEBCODEEVENT_SUMMARYISSUE_TYPE1ISSUE_TYPE2ISSUE_TYPE3BAR_SCALEMACRO_EVENT
1/1/1874 Kali Agree to maintain water levels of three reservoirs located on the international border 12  
2/12/1897 Kosi Kosi Barrage at Chatra approved by Nepal's PM 10  
6/1/1897 Kali Maintain the existing levels in the three reservoirs to be those of 1874 12  
5/14/1898 Kali Letter discussing the issue of three reservoirs more interestingly as a boundary dispute and maintenance of water levels in the reservoirs 12  
01-01-1901 Kali Seek permission for the survey of Mahakali (Sarada) River for Sarada – Ganges – Jamuna Feeder project (Banbasa Barrage) 11 Sarada Agreement 
01-01-1910 Kali Survey of Sarada (Mahakali) approved 11 Sarada Agreement 
03-05-1916 Kali Request for Nepalese territory to tie up the left or eastern flank of the Sarada River to higher ground in Nepal 10 Sarada Agreement 
23-08-1920 Kali Request approved on Sarada Barrage, in exchange of 4,093.88 acre land 10 Sarada Agreement 
01-01-1922 Kosi Construction of Chandra Canal in Nepal on Trijuga Khola River under the supervision of British engineer 11  
10 01-01-1928 Kali Banbasa Barrage completed and inaugurated on the Sarada River 10 Sarada Agreement 

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