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Households with foreign-born nativity and minority status share many of the experiences and risk factors we expect to be correlated with the perception of unsafe water. Accordingly, we use binary logistic regression to further examine whether there is a robust, independent relationship between these factors and trust in the tap while holding other potential correlates of perception constant. Table 2 presents our model results. We report odds ratios, coefficients and BRR standard errors for each independent variable. Odds ratios show the effect of a given explanatory factor on perception, with the deviation of a ratio above one reflecting a positive effect on perception and the deviation of a ratio below one reflecting the extent of a negative effect5.

Table 2.

Binary logit model of perceived water safety.

Independent variableCoefficient (BRR standard error)Odds ratio
Individual socioeconomic characteristics (reference group for race/ethnicity is NH-Whites) 
 High school graduate 0.14 (0.05) *** 1.15 
 Years abroad −0.01 (0.00) *** 0.99 
 Foreign-born, Latino −1.50 (0.08) *** 0.22 
 Foreign-born, Non-Latino −0.62 (0.08) *** 0.54 
 Native-born, Latino −0.89 (0.06) *** 0.41 
 Native-born, Non-Latino −0.43 (0.15) *** 0.65 
 Black −0.35 (0.05) *** 0.70 
Household socioeconomic characteristics 
 Household income ($1,000s) 0.00 (0.00) *** 1.00 
 Ownership of housing unit 0.31 (0.04) *** 1.36 
Built environment 
 Housing unit rating −0.18 (0.01) *** 0.83 
 Building built in 1990 or later −0.04 (0.05)  0.96 
 Trailer park −0.44 (0.12) *** 0.64 
 Small system 0.27 (0.04) *** 1.30 
 Neighborhood rating 0.13 (0.01) *** 1.14 
In-person interviewa 0.19 (0.04) *** 1.21 
Constant term 1.49 (0.10) *** 4.42 
Independent variableCoefficient (BRR standard error)Odds ratio
Individual socioeconomic characteristics (reference group for race/ethnicity is NH-Whites) 
 High school graduate 0.14 (0.05) *** 1.15 
 Years abroad −0.01 (0.00) *** 0.99 
 Foreign-born, Latino −1.50 (0.08) *** 0.22 
 Foreign-born, Non-Latino −0.62 (0.08) *** 0.54 
 Native-born, Latino −0.89 (0.06) *** 0.41 
 Native-born, Non-Latino −0.43 (0.15) *** 0.65 
 Black −0.35 (0.05) *** 0.70 
Household socioeconomic characteristics 
 Household income ($1,000s) 0.00 (0.00) *** 1.00 
 Ownership of housing unit 0.31 (0.04) *** 1.36 
Built environment 
 Housing unit rating −0.18 (0.01) *** 0.83 
 Building built in 1990 or later −0.04 (0.05)  0.96 
 Trailer park −0.44 (0.12) *** 0.64 
 Small system 0.27 (0.04) *** 1.30 
 Neighborhood rating 0.13 (0.01) *** 1.14 
In-person interviewa 0.19 (0.04) *** 1.21 
Constant term 1.49 (0.10) *** 4.42 

Source:American Housing Survey (2013); tabulated by authors.

***p-value ≤ 0.01.

aHouseholds interviewed in person were slightly more likely to report that they perceive their water to be safe to drink than those interviewed by phone, which suggests a mild effect of interview type.

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