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Analysis of each cross-disciplinary paper using the framework of Huutoniemi et al. (2010) revealed that 30 of the papers could be categorised as interdisciplinary (Table 2). They were categorised as: (i) empirical interdisciplinary, e.g. remotely sensed data sets were combined with interviews and policy analysis to understand land use change in Ethiopia (see Yeshaneh et al., 2013); or (ii) methodological interdisciplinary, e.g. a new model integrating hydrology, sociology and economics was developed to explore how societal development responds to flooding, and how flooding subsequently responds to societal development (see Viglione et al., 2014); or (iii) theoretical interdisciplinary, e.g. the development of a new numerical solution for a specific process of fluid dynamics (see Horváth et al., 2014).

Table 2.

Type of interdisciplinarity in the 40 ISI indexed cross-disciplinary publications where a member of the Programme is first author, according to Huutoniemi et al. (2010) framework (MD = multidisciplinary, ID = interdisciplinary).

CategoryNumber of publications
Empirical ID 14 
Methodological ID 
Contextual MD 
Composite MD/Empirical ID 
Empirical ID/Methodological ID 
Not MD or ID 
Empirical ID/Theoretical ID 
Encyclopaedic MD 
Theoretical ID 
Total 40 
CategoryNumber of publications
Empirical ID 14 
Methodological ID 
Contextual MD 
Composite MD/Empirical ID 
Empirical ID/Methodological ID 
Not MD or ID 
Empirical ID/Theoretical ID 
Encyclopaedic MD 
Theoretical ID 
Total 40 

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