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Energy is required for extraction, conveyance, treatment, and distribution of water to the end-user. Generally, the main energy type in these processes is electricity, and the unit consumption rate is stated as energy intensity. Summarized from Hoff (2011), and Mohtar & Daher (2012), the energy intensity to produce one cubic metre of clean water is listed in Table 3. The production processes of non-conventional water sources usually require more energy to produce than the conventional sources. Meanwhile, the amount of energy needed for groundwater extraction varies depending on the aquifer depth, pumping volume, and types of pump, while the amount of energy required for desalination depends on the technologies applied. In practice, the total amount of energy needed for distribution must also consider leakage, which reduces the efficiency and increases the energy consumption.

Table 3.

Energy intensity of clean water production (Hoff, 2011; Mohtar & Daher, 2012).

Source of waterEnergy intensity
Lake or river 0.37 kWh/m3 
Groundwater 0.48 kWh/m3 
Wastewater treatment 0.62–0.87 kWh/m3 
Wastewater reuse 1–2.5 kWh/m3 
Seawater 2.58–8.5 kWh/m3 
Source of waterEnergy intensity
Lake or river 0.37 kWh/m3 
Groundwater 0.48 kWh/m3 
Wastewater treatment 0.62–0.87 kWh/m3 
Wastewater reuse 1–2.5 kWh/m3 
Seawater 2.58–8.5 kWh/m3 

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