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The evaluation in this section is not intended to compare the models ‘face to face’ because each model was developed for different purposes. Hence, the evaluation is focused on the strength of model to be adopted, and the weakness that can be improved in new models as summarized in Table 6. It should be noted that the existing models simulate the nexus in a one-way direction rather than fully investigate the feedbacks and interconnections of each element. Also, none of the models has an optimization module to optimally allocate the resources. Further improvements are needed for model development and will be discussed in the following section.

Table 6.

Summary of existing nexus models.

ModelYearApplied areaSummary
Sankey diagram 1898: (1st drawn) 2006: (1st computer application) Australia, China, USA, etc. The Sankey diagram is a decent visualization model to describe the usage of water and energy. The diagram represents the direction of flow in an arrow while the amount is represented by its thickness. However, it is only a visualization model, incapable of doing scenario simulation. Nowadays, mainly utilized to present the distribution of energy and water, it is not used to show the amount of energy and water used in the production of food. This visualization scheme could be very helpful to represent the distribution of WEF. 
MuSIASEM 2013 Rep. of Mauritius, Punjab (India), and South Africa Diagnostic or simulation model to analyse the WEF nexus by characterizing the metabolic patterns of WEF in connection with socio-economic and ecology variables based on Georgescu-Roegen's flow-funds elements. An applicative model, but also a complex model that can be understood only by limited users. 
WEF Nexus Tool 2.0 2013 Qatar Basically utilized to calculate the water and energy needed for food supply in Qatar. This application is a scenario-based tool that was developed to quantify the resources' requirement for nationwide food supply. The user has the ability to create scenarios by defining the food, water, and energy portfolio, while it results in the required water, local and imported energy consumption, land, and financial requirements, and carbon emissions. It is a user-friendly application and could be referred to the development of another simulation model. 
ANEMI 2011 Canada A system dynamics model for analysing the behaviour of the social-energy-economy-climate system. Developed using the Ventana Simulation Environment (Vensim) software, it has a user-friendly module to develop the model but limited flexibility in creating new scenarios. The implementation of a system dynamics model gives the advantage to model the linkage of nexus. 
ModelYearApplied areaSummary
Sankey diagram 1898: (1st drawn) 2006: (1st computer application) Australia, China, USA, etc. The Sankey diagram is a decent visualization model to describe the usage of water and energy. The diagram represents the direction of flow in an arrow while the amount is represented by its thickness. However, it is only a visualization model, incapable of doing scenario simulation. Nowadays, mainly utilized to present the distribution of energy and water, it is not used to show the amount of energy and water used in the production of food. This visualization scheme could be very helpful to represent the distribution of WEF. 
MuSIASEM 2013 Rep. of Mauritius, Punjab (India), and South Africa Diagnostic or simulation model to analyse the WEF nexus by characterizing the metabolic patterns of WEF in connection with socio-economic and ecology variables based on Georgescu-Roegen's flow-funds elements. An applicative model, but also a complex model that can be understood only by limited users. 
WEF Nexus Tool 2.0 2013 Qatar Basically utilized to calculate the water and energy needed for food supply in Qatar. This application is a scenario-based tool that was developed to quantify the resources' requirement for nationwide food supply. The user has the ability to create scenarios by defining the food, water, and energy portfolio, while it results in the required water, local and imported energy consumption, land, and financial requirements, and carbon emissions. It is a user-friendly application and could be referred to the development of another simulation model. 
ANEMI 2011 Canada A system dynamics model for analysing the behaviour of the social-energy-economy-climate system. Developed using the Ventana Simulation Environment (Vensim) software, it has a user-friendly module to develop the model but limited flexibility in creating new scenarios. The implementation of a system dynamics model gives the advantage to model the linkage of nexus. 

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