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The selected topic model reveals 30 topics, as shown in Table 1, from the news corpus. Terms shown in the second column of Table 1 are the five most-frequent terms plus five most-exclusive terms of each topic (Tvinnereim & Fløttum, 2015). Hyphens indicate stemming, for instance, the term ‘industri-’ comprises ‘industry’ and ‘industrial’. Labels and perspectives of each topic in Table 1 are suggested based on qualitative analysis of the content of the discriminating terms and the representative articles. Topics in Table 1 are sorted according to their proportions in the whole corpus, from the highest to the lowest. The most-dominant topic has a proportion of 13.7%, while the rarest topic has a proportion of 0.6%.

Table 1.

Most discriminating words by induced topic, with suggested topic labels and perspectives.

No.Most discriminating terms (frequency and exclusivity)LabelPerspectiveProportion
China, India, river, Brahmaputra, dam, Tsangpo, Zangmu, Yarlung, divert, Krishna Sino–Indian relations on the Brahmaputra Politics/Environment 13.7% 
dam, project, Assam, said, Subansiri, KMSS, Akhil, AASU, Samiti Dam-related campaigns in India (Assam) Politics 7.4% 
project, Arunach-, Pradesh, river, dam, Siang, Lohit, clearanc-, Dibang, Demw- Domestic politics of India (Arunachal) Politics 6.3% 
Assam, contact, pleas-, com, Hindustantim, htsyndic, syndic, editor, permiss-, queri- Domestic politics of India (Assam) Politics 6.2% 
Tibet, region, China, develop, provinc-, mln, Huaneng, Yuan, kilowatt, Sichuan, Lhasa Provincial development plans in China Politics/Economy 5.6% 
water, river, will, flow, resourc-, flow, basin, Nile, divert, drought Hydrological environment Environment 5.6% 
power, hydropow-, project, generat-, capac-, electr-, instal-, grid, potenti-, cost Hydropower technology Technology 5.3% 
state, project, minist-, flood, said, NEWRA, Ganga, rejuven-, board, crore India's water policy and plan Politics/Environment 5.2% 
dam, river, Mekong, project, hydropow-, Salween, gorg-, Lao, Yangtze, fish Development of the Mekong and the Salween Politics/Environment 4.7% 
10 glacier, river, said, melt, chang-, Fraser, ice, glacial, snow, scientist Glacier Environment 4.0% 
11 India, said, two, countri-, border, Wen, Jiabao, premier, Singh, Manmohan Sino–Indian relations Politics 4.0% 
12 flood, peopl-, year, area, forest, tiger, rain, tree, habitat, speci- Human–nature relationship Environment 3.7% 
13 one, will, even, now, can, rememb-, politician, happen, might, perhap- Common words in news articles Noise 3.2% 
14 Bangladesh, India, river, water, Gang-, Farakka, NRLP, Dhaka, Hasina, Koshi Bangladesh–India relations on the GBM Politics/Environment 2.7% 
15 China, Chines-, Beij-, resourc-, intern-, Burma, Chellaney, disput-, win Resource disputes with China Politics 2.6% 
16 Pakistan, India, treati-, Indus, south, Neelum, Kishenganga, arbitr-, Baglihar, Mahakali Pakistan–India relations on Indus Politics/Environment 2.0% 
17 countri-, cooper-, region, agreement, issu-, negoti-, rep-, parti-, democraci-, secretari- Common terms in politics Politics 1.9% 
18 earthquak-, govern, Assam, India, peopl-, BJP, seismic, magnitud-, quak-, poll Natural hazards and politics Politics/Environment 1.8% 
19 India, region, Bangladesh, econom-, trade, SAARC, transit, cargo, GES, waterway Bangladesh–India relations Politics 1.8% 
20 energi-, India, product, oil, coal, renew, product, fuel, solar, wind Indian energy resources Technology 1.7% 
21 power, plant, compani-, project, construct-, tender, KEC, contract, award, deliveri- Power plant project management Technology 1.5% 
22 climat-, food, chang-, environment, develop, Fulbright, car, emiss-, nexus, innov- Climate change impacts Environment 1.5% 
23 develop, support, forc-, nation, secur-, USAID, PAPF, PLA, train, task Development and national security Politics 1.5% 
24 per, industri-, develop, cent, govern, school, farmer, herdsmen, grain, incom- Society and economy development Politics/Economy 1.3% 
25 China, secur-, state, Taiwan, risk, terror, Korean, terrorist, navi-, SCO China's diplomacy (East Asia) Politics 0.9% 
26 Tibet, Tibetan, govern-, peopl-, Dalai, serfdom, Panchen, Lama, autonomi-, Buddhist Tibetan society, religion and history Politics 0.9% 
27 power, region, nuclear, will, demand, pacif-, market, demand, thermal, UMPP Energy sector analysis Economy/Technology 0.8% 
28 generat-, BMI, forecast, India, estim-, OPEC, twh, bbl, PED, toe, BCM Indian power sector Economy 0.8% 
29 know, think, just, thank, one, menzi-, inaud, realli-, unknown, rare Common words in interview reports Noise 0.7% 
30 trend, river, year, figure-, climat-, Warsk, Mann, streamow, Kendal, signic- Engineering hydrology Environment/Technology 0.6% 
No.Most discriminating terms (frequency and exclusivity)LabelPerspectiveProportion
China, India, river, Brahmaputra, dam, Tsangpo, Zangmu, Yarlung, divert, Krishna Sino–Indian relations on the Brahmaputra Politics/Environment 13.7% 
dam, project, Assam, said, Subansiri, KMSS, Akhil, AASU, Samiti Dam-related campaigns in India (Assam) Politics 7.4% 
project, Arunach-, Pradesh, river, dam, Siang, Lohit, clearanc-, Dibang, Demw- Domestic politics of India (Arunachal) Politics 6.3% 
Assam, contact, pleas-, com, Hindustantim, htsyndic, syndic, editor, permiss-, queri- Domestic politics of India (Assam) Politics 6.2% 
Tibet, region, China, develop, provinc-, mln, Huaneng, Yuan, kilowatt, Sichuan, Lhasa Provincial development plans in China Politics/Economy 5.6% 
water, river, will, flow, resourc-, flow, basin, Nile, divert, drought Hydrological environment Environment 5.6% 
power, hydropow-, project, generat-, capac-, electr-, instal-, grid, potenti-, cost Hydropower technology Technology 5.3% 
state, project, minist-, flood, said, NEWRA, Ganga, rejuven-, board, crore India's water policy and plan Politics/Environment 5.2% 
dam, river, Mekong, project, hydropow-, Salween, gorg-, Lao, Yangtze, fish Development of the Mekong and the Salween Politics/Environment 4.7% 
10 glacier, river, said, melt, chang-, Fraser, ice, glacial, snow, scientist Glacier Environment 4.0% 
11 India, said, two, countri-, border, Wen, Jiabao, premier, Singh, Manmohan Sino–Indian relations Politics 4.0% 
12 flood, peopl-, year, area, forest, tiger, rain, tree, habitat, speci- Human–nature relationship Environment 3.7% 
13 one, will, even, now, can, rememb-, politician, happen, might, perhap- Common words in news articles Noise 3.2% 
14 Bangladesh, India, river, water, Gang-, Farakka, NRLP, Dhaka, Hasina, Koshi Bangladesh–India relations on the GBM Politics/Environment 2.7% 
15 China, Chines-, Beij-, resourc-, intern-, Burma, Chellaney, disput-, win Resource disputes with China Politics 2.6% 
16 Pakistan, India, treati-, Indus, south, Neelum, Kishenganga, arbitr-, Baglihar, Mahakali Pakistan–India relations on Indus Politics/Environment 2.0% 
17 countri-, cooper-, region, agreement, issu-, negoti-, rep-, parti-, democraci-, secretari- Common terms in politics Politics 1.9% 
18 earthquak-, govern, Assam, India, peopl-, BJP, seismic, magnitud-, quak-, poll Natural hazards and politics Politics/Environment 1.8% 
19 India, region, Bangladesh, econom-, trade, SAARC, transit, cargo, GES, waterway Bangladesh–India relations Politics 1.8% 
20 energi-, India, product, oil, coal, renew, product, fuel, solar, wind Indian energy resources Technology 1.7% 
21 power, plant, compani-, project, construct-, tender, KEC, contract, award, deliveri- Power plant project management Technology 1.5% 
22 climat-, food, chang-, environment, develop, Fulbright, car, emiss-, nexus, innov- Climate change impacts Environment 1.5% 
23 develop, support, forc-, nation, secur-, USAID, PAPF, PLA, train, task Development and national security Politics 1.5% 
24 per, industri-, develop, cent, govern, school, farmer, herdsmen, grain, incom- Society and economy development Politics/Economy 1.3% 
25 China, secur-, state, Taiwan, risk, terror, Korean, terrorist, navi-, SCO China's diplomacy (East Asia) Politics 0.9% 
26 Tibet, Tibetan, govern-, peopl-, Dalai, serfdom, Panchen, Lama, autonomi-, Buddhist Tibetan society, religion and history Politics 0.9% 
27 power, region, nuclear, will, demand, pacif-, market, demand, thermal, UMPP Energy sector analysis Economy/Technology 0.8% 
28 generat-, BMI, forecast, India, estim-, OPEC, twh, bbl, PED, toe, BCM Indian power sector Economy 0.8% 
29 know, think, just, thank, one, menzi-, inaud, realli-, unknown, rare Common words in interview reports Noise 0.7% 
30 trend, river, year, figure-, climat-, Warsk, Mann, streamow, Kendal, signic- Engineering hydrology Environment/Technology 0.6% 

Abbreviations in Table 1 are explained in Appendix A (available with the online version of this paper).

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