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The analysis presented in Table 1 is potentially clouded by the inclusion of groups of States already bound by substantive international waters agreements that existed before the 1997 UNWC. These agreements include the European Union's Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD) binding on 28 States, the 1992 (entry into force 1996) United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (UNECE-WC) binding on 40 States (of which 22 are EU member States) and the 1995 Southern Africa Development Cooperation's Protocol on Shared Water Courses (SADC-P) binding on 12 mainland Southern Africa States. A total of 52 States are bound by these agreements, each of which requires coordinated action on international watercourses, supported by international institutions. It is important to note that these States may not be bound with regard to non-member States: for example, Tanzania is a SADC member State within the Nile Basin, within which it is one of 11 riparian States and is a significant upstream State. Table 2 illustrates the elements from the UNECE-WC and the SADC-P that have clear salience to the UNWC.

Table 2.

Relevant extracts from UNECE-WC and SADC-P.

UNECE-WC Statement on Reciprocity‘The Riparians shall cooperate on the basis of equality and reciprocity, in particular through bilateral and multilateral agreements, in order to develop harmonized policies, programmes and strategies covering the relevant catchment areas, or parts thereof, aimed at the prevention, control and reduction of transboundary impact’ (Article 2, General Provision 6, UNECE, 1992).
SADC-P Statements on cooperation, information exchange, and transboundary consideration ‘Close cooperation with regard to the study and execution of all projects likely to have an effect on the regime of the water course system’ (Article 2(4)); ‘exchange [of] available information and data’ (Article 2(5)); use of ‘a shared watercourse system in an equitable manner’ (Article 2(6)); ‘the social and economic needs of member States concerned’ be taken into account in utilizing shared watercourses (Article 2 (7.b)) (SADC, 1995). 
UNECE-WC Statement on Reciprocity‘The Riparians shall cooperate on the basis of equality and reciprocity, in particular through bilateral and multilateral agreements, in order to develop harmonized policies, programmes and strategies covering the relevant catchment areas, or parts thereof, aimed at the prevention, control and reduction of transboundary impact’ (Article 2, General Provision 6, UNECE, 1992).
SADC-P Statements on cooperation, information exchange, and transboundary consideration ‘Close cooperation with regard to the study and execution of all projects likely to have an effect on the regime of the water course system’ (Article 2(4)); ‘exchange [of] available information and data’ (Article 2(5)); use of ‘a shared watercourse system in an equitable manner’ (Article 2(6)); ‘the social and economic needs of member States concerned’ be taken into account in utilizing shared watercourses (Article 2 (7.b)) (SADC, 1995). 

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