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Two of the 24 river basins do not fit the hypothesis, offering either a confused picture, or a clear upstream support/downstream disengagement, running counter to the hypothesis (Table 5).

Table 5.

Summary of the two major transboundary basins that do not fit the hypothesized voting behaviour.

Basin name (riparian States)Trend descriptionDetailed description
Kura-Araks Basin (6 States: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey) Upstream objection, midstream support and downstream disengagement This basin includes the States of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, which gained independence from the USSR in 1991 and ‘depend greatly on the Kura-Araks Basin’ (Campana et al., 2012, p. 22). Upstream Turkey voted against and midstream States Armenia, Georgia and Iran voted for the UNWC. Downstream Azerbaijan abstained. No States have ratified. With upstream objection, some midstream support and downstream ambivalence, the basin does not fully fit the hypothesized behaviour. 
Volta (6 States: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote D'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Togo) Some upstream support and downstream disengagement This basin has upstream States that are coastal and themselves downstream on important basins, including Cote D'Ivoire (downstream on rivers rising in Guinea and Burkina Faso), which voted for and has ratified, and Benin (downstream on the Oueme River), which was absent and has ratified, both of which fit our hypothesis for these basins. Upstream Mali (see Niger River) abstained and Togo was absent and neither State has ratified. However, the Volta Basin does not support the hypothesis, with the main upstream State Burkina Faso voting in favour and ratifying and downstream Ghana abstaining and not ratifying. 
Basin name (riparian States)Trend descriptionDetailed description
Kura-Araks Basin (6 States: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey) Upstream objection, midstream support and downstream disengagement This basin includes the States of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, which gained independence from the USSR in 1991 and ‘depend greatly on the Kura-Araks Basin’ (Campana et al., 2012, p. 22). Upstream Turkey voted against and midstream States Armenia, Georgia and Iran voted for the UNWC. Downstream Azerbaijan abstained. No States have ratified. With upstream objection, some midstream support and downstream ambivalence, the basin does not fully fit the hypothesized behaviour. 
Volta (6 States: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote D'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Togo) Some upstream support and downstream disengagement This basin has upstream States that are coastal and themselves downstream on important basins, including Cote D'Ivoire (downstream on rivers rising in Guinea and Burkina Faso), which voted for and has ratified, and Benin (downstream on the Oueme River), which was absent and has ratified, both of which fit our hypothesis for these basins. Upstream Mali (see Niger River) abstained and Togo was absent and neither State has ratified. However, the Volta Basin does not support the hypothesis, with the main upstream State Burkina Faso voting in favour and ratifying and downstream Ghana abstaining and not ratifying. 

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