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The variable definitions are presented in Appendix Table 1 (available with the online version of this paper) and the summary statistics for key variables are presented in Table 1. We find that by comparing the two-dimensional quality level by user type (subsidized, standard, or surcharged households), the difference in service reliability is larger than the difference in drinking water tangibles on average (Table 2). In contrast, comparing the two-dimensional quality level by provider type (community providers or public providers), we find that the difference in drinking water tangibles is larger than the difference in service reliability on average (Table 3).

Table 1.

Summary statistics.

VariableMeanStd DevMinMaxObservations
Independent variable 
Service Continuity 0.7775 0.4160 9,456 
Drinking Water Quality 0.7791 0.4149 11,838 
Dependent variable 
Subsidized 0.9549 0.2075 11,838 
Surcharged 0.0155 0.1237 11,838 
Community Provider 0.2073 0.4054 9,456 
Municipal characteristics 
Transfer/Municipality Income 59.6284 20.7167 11.0422 96.9680 11,709 
Population Density 1,097.152 2,015.956 2.2297 14,451.24 11,838 
Municipal Socioeconomic Index 77.6209 13.3118 42.4534 94.5252 11,838 
Households characteristics 
Female Family Head 0.3160 0.4649 11,838 
Can Read or Write 0.9030 0.2959 11,838 
Family Size 3.7593 1.9497 20 11,838 
Age 48.1103 15.4120 12 98 11,838 
Urban 0.6104 0.4877 11,838 
Rural 0.1493 0.3564 11,838 
Own 0.5417 0.4983 11,838 
Rent 0.2631 0.4403 11,838 
Edu2 0.0006 0.0243 11,838 
Edu3 0.4622 0.4986 11,838 
Edu4 0.2859 0.4518 11,838 
Edu5 0.0313 0.1742 11,838 
Edu6 0.0126 0.1115 11,838 
Edu7 0.0126 0.1115 11,838 
Edu8 0.0454 0.2083 11,838 
Edu9 0.0011 0.0331 11,838 
Edu10 0.0190 0.1366 11,838 
VariableMeanStd DevMinMaxObservations
Independent variable 
Service Continuity 0.7775 0.4160 9,456 
Drinking Water Quality 0.7791 0.4149 11,838 
Dependent variable 
Subsidized 0.9549 0.2075 11,838 
Surcharged 0.0155 0.1237 11,838 
Community Provider 0.2073 0.4054 9,456 
Municipal characteristics 
Transfer/Municipality Income 59.6284 20.7167 11.0422 96.9680 11,709 
Population Density 1,097.152 2,015.956 2.2297 14,451.24 11,838 
Municipal Socioeconomic Index 77.6209 13.3118 42.4534 94.5252 11,838 
Households characteristics 
Female Family Head 0.3160 0.4649 11,838 
Can Read or Write 0.9030 0.2959 11,838 
Family Size 3.7593 1.9497 20 11,838 
Age 48.1103 15.4120 12 98 11,838 
Urban 0.6104 0.4877 11,838 
Rural 0.1493 0.3564 11,838 
Own 0.5417 0.4983 11,838 
Rent 0.2631 0.4403 11,838 
Edu2 0.0006 0.0243 11,838 
Edu3 0.4622 0.4986 11,838 
Edu4 0.2859 0.4518 11,838 
Edu5 0.0313 0.1742 11,838 
Edu6 0.0126 0.1115 11,838 
Edu7 0.0126 0.1115 11,838 
Edu8 0.0454 0.2083 11,838 
Edu9 0.0011 0.0331 11,838 
Edu10 0.0190 0.1366 11,838 

Note: This table shows summary statistics for all the variables used in the main regression. Definitions for all the variables are presented in Appendix Table 1 (available with the online version of this paper).

Table 2.

Two-dimensional quality by users.

Mean of service reliabilityMean of drinking water tangibles
Subsidized 0.7668 0.7761 
Standard 0.9527 0.8200 
Surcharged 0.9831 0.8859 
Mean of service reliabilityMean of drinking water tangibles
Subsidized 0.7668 0.7761 
Standard 0.9527 0.8200 
Surcharged 0.9831 0.8859 
Table 3.

Two-dimensional quality by providers.

Mean of service reliabilityMean of drinking water tangibles
Public Provider 0.7983 0.8160 
Community Provider 0.6980 0.6571 
Mean of service reliabilityMean of drinking water tangibles
Public Provider 0.7983 0.8160 
Community Provider 0.6980 0.6571 

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