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Of the potential participants, 371 women agreed to participate in the study. The sample characteristics are shown in Table 1. The average amount of daily collected water per capita was 15.4 LPCD (range: 0–175 LPCD). The volume of collected water was lowest in households with <4 hours/week of piped water supply (p = 0.001). Approximately 11% of participants answered that they always or most of the time felt that their QOL deteriorated due to water problems.

Table 1.

Participants' characteristics (n = 371).

CharacteristicsValue
n (%)
Mean age in years (SD) 34.0 (8.9) 
Mean household size (SD) 4.9 (2.2) 
Marital status  
 Married 314 (84.6) 
 Not married 57 (15.4) 
Having children  
 Yes 294 (79.5) 
 No 76 (20.5) 
Ethnicity  
 Brhamin/Chettri 146 (40.2) 
 Newar/Janajati 210 (57.9) 
 Dalit 7 (1.9) 
Educational level  
 No formal education 35 (9.4) 
 Primary (1–5 years) 104 (28.0) 
 Lower secondary (6–9 years) 93 (25.1) 
 Upper secondary (10–12 years) 59 (15.9) 
 University/college 73 (19.7) 
 Do not answer 7 (1.9) 
Monthly household income  
 Not fixed income 56 (15.1) 
 Less than NRs. 5,000 17 (4.6) 
 NRs. 5,000–9,999 57 (15.4) 
 NRs. 10,000–14,999 43 (11.6) 
 NRs. 15,000–19,999 46 (12.4) 
 More than NRs. 20,000 51 (13.6) 
 Missing/do not know 101 (27.2) 
Mean frequency of bathing per week (min–max) 2.4 (1–7) 
Mean frequency of washing clothes per week (min–max) 2.6 (1–7) 
Mean frequency of mopping the floor per week (min–max) 3.8 (0.06–14) 
Mean frequency of cleaning the latrine/toilet per week (min–max) 3.8 (0.5–7) 
Mean litres of collected water per capita per day (SD) 15.4 (20.1) 
Deterioration of quality of life due to a water scarcity problem  
 Always 8 (2.7) 
 Most of the time 30 (8.1) 
 Sometimes 125 (34.0) 
 Rarely 86 (23.4) 
 Never 119 (32.3) 
CharacteristicsValue
n (%)
Mean age in years (SD) 34.0 (8.9) 
Mean household size (SD) 4.9 (2.2) 
Marital status  
 Married 314 (84.6) 
 Not married 57 (15.4) 
Having children  
 Yes 294 (79.5) 
 No 76 (20.5) 
Ethnicity  
 Brhamin/Chettri 146 (40.2) 
 Newar/Janajati 210 (57.9) 
 Dalit 7 (1.9) 
Educational level  
 No formal education 35 (9.4) 
 Primary (1–5 years) 104 (28.0) 
 Lower secondary (6–9 years) 93 (25.1) 
 Upper secondary (10–12 years) 59 (15.9) 
 University/college 73 (19.7) 
 Do not answer 7 (1.9) 
Monthly household income  
 Not fixed income 56 (15.1) 
 Less than NRs. 5,000 17 (4.6) 
 NRs. 5,000–9,999 57 (15.4) 
 NRs. 10,000–14,999 43 (11.6) 
 NRs. 15,000–19,999 46 (12.4) 
 More than NRs. 20,000 51 (13.6) 
 Missing/do not know 101 (27.2) 
Mean frequency of bathing per week (min–max) 2.4 (1–7) 
Mean frequency of washing clothes per week (min–max) 2.6 (1–7) 
Mean frequency of mopping the floor per week (min–max) 3.8 (0.06–14) 
Mean frequency of cleaning the latrine/toilet per week (min–max) 3.8 (0.5–7) 
Mean litres of collected water per capita per day (SD) 15.4 (20.1) 
Deterioration of quality of life due to a water scarcity problem  
 Always 8 (2.7) 
 Most of the time 30 (8.1) 
 Sometimes 125 (34.0) 
 Rarely 86 (23.4) 
 Never 119 (32.3) 

SD: standard deviation, min: minimum, max: maximum.

Note: NRs. 1 = USD 0.011.

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