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From 22 items of household water insecurity, we examined the principal factors for each of the domains. The item ‘unable to cook desirable meals due to water scarcity’ was eliminated because the rotated factor loading was below 0.4. While the rotated factor loading of ‘thought of leaving current place due to water scarcity’ was over 0.4, we eliminated this variable because the uniqueness value was 0.55 and we considered this variable as error variance (Table 2). Therefore, 20 items were retained based on the criteria for determining valid items. Four domains (factors) were extracted on the basis of factor loadings: ‘difficulties in house-work related to water’, ‘lost opportunity costs and social interactions related to water supply’, ‘insufficiency of a safe water supply’, and ‘difficulties in basic activities related to water.’ Cronbach's α for the full set of items was 0.94. The eigenvalue, per cent of variance, and Cronbach's α of adapted domains are shown in Table 3. The internal consistency of the domain was good, with Cronbach's α ranging from 0.86 to 0.93. The item with the highest number of women experiencing water insecurity was ‘collect less water than needed’ (70.6%). In contrast, the item with the lowest number of women experiencing water insecurity was ‘cannot join in any social functions (e.g. wedding, occasions, or festivals) due to the time consumed by water collection’ (13.5%).

Table 2.

Twenty-two items of household water insecurity and factor loadings and uniqueness of the items, and affirmative responses in Nepali women (n = 371).

Household water insecurity items (22 items)Rotated factor loadings
UniquenessAffirmative responses
Factor 1Factor 2Factor 3Factor 4
1. Difficulties in cleaning house 0.79 0.19 0.25 0.32 0.18 41.2% 
2. Difficulties in laundry 0.79 0.19 0.28 0.23 0.20 48.3% 
3. Difficulties in cleaning latrine/toilet 0.83 0.18 0.23 0.25 0.17 45.3% 
4. Difficulties in bathing 0.76 0.23 0.24 0.30 0.22 44.2% 
5. Living in unhygienic place due to water scarcity 0.53 0.27 0.46 0.16 0.16 43.4% 
6. Dispute with neighbours/tenants/owners due to issue in water collection and water scarcity 0.38 0.70 0.01 −0.02 0.37 17.5% 
7. Dispute with family members due to issue in water collection and water scarcity 0.29 0.79 −0.11 0.01 0.29 14.6% 
8. Less time for daily work and income generating activities due to water collection 0.28 0.64 0.41 0.20 0.31 32.6% 
9. Less sleep due to the inappropriate water supply schedule 0.10 0.60 0.32 0.29 0.45 27.5% 
10. Having health problem or tiredness caused difficulties in water collection 0.06 0.75 0.43 0.18 0.23 29.7% 
11. Reduced efficiency of other daily work caused by water-related health problems 0.12 0.71 0.40 0.30 0.23 28.6% 
12. Unable to join social functions such as wedding/occasions/festivals due to water collection 0.14 0.73 0.13 0.10 0.42 13.5% 
13. Collect less water than needed 0.54 0.22 0.59 0.04 0.32 70.6% 
14. Use less quality of water or unsafe water source due to water scarcity 0.18 0.20 0.75 0.16 0.34 45.6% 
15. Cannot collect enough piped water because not enough water at the source 0.48 0.18 0.68 0.04 0.27 60.1% 
16. Cannot collect enough water from other sources due to water scarcity 0.46 0.19 0.66 0.08 0.31 51.5% 
17. Pay more money for buying water due to water scarcity 0.54 0.12 0.52 0.17 0.39 42.3% 
18. Difficulties in washing hands or face 0.58 0.16 0.04 0.65 0.22 25.6% 
19. Difficulties in cooking 0.30 0.17 0.14 0.82 0.18 14.8% 
20. Difficulties in drinking 0.19 0.08 0.07 0.85 0.23 43.4% 
21. Unable to cook desirable meals due to water scarcity 0.36 0.33 0.37 0.33 0.52 26.1% 
22. Thought of leaving current place due to water scarcity 0.65 0.12 0.10 0.06 0.55 21.0% 
Eigenvalue 10.45 2.14 1.53 1.06   
Per cent of variance 24% 18% 15% 12%   
Household water insecurity items (22 items)Rotated factor loadings
UniquenessAffirmative responses
Factor 1Factor 2Factor 3Factor 4
1. Difficulties in cleaning house 0.79 0.19 0.25 0.32 0.18 41.2% 
2. Difficulties in laundry 0.79 0.19 0.28 0.23 0.20 48.3% 
3. Difficulties in cleaning latrine/toilet 0.83 0.18 0.23 0.25 0.17 45.3% 
4. Difficulties in bathing 0.76 0.23 0.24 0.30 0.22 44.2% 
5. Living in unhygienic place due to water scarcity 0.53 0.27 0.46 0.16 0.16 43.4% 
6. Dispute with neighbours/tenants/owners due to issue in water collection and water scarcity 0.38 0.70 0.01 −0.02 0.37 17.5% 
7. Dispute with family members due to issue in water collection and water scarcity 0.29 0.79 −0.11 0.01 0.29 14.6% 
8. Less time for daily work and income generating activities due to water collection 0.28 0.64 0.41 0.20 0.31 32.6% 
9. Less sleep due to the inappropriate water supply schedule 0.10 0.60 0.32 0.29 0.45 27.5% 
10. Having health problem or tiredness caused difficulties in water collection 0.06 0.75 0.43 0.18 0.23 29.7% 
11. Reduced efficiency of other daily work caused by water-related health problems 0.12 0.71 0.40 0.30 0.23 28.6% 
12. Unable to join social functions such as wedding/occasions/festivals due to water collection 0.14 0.73 0.13 0.10 0.42 13.5% 
13. Collect less water than needed 0.54 0.22 0.59 0.04 0.32 70.6% 
14. Use less quality of water or unsafe water source due to water scarcity 0.18 0.20 0.75 0.16 0.34 45.6% 
15. Cannot collect enough piped water because not enough water at the source 0.48 0.18 0.68 0.04 0.27 60.1% 
16. Cannot collect enough water from other sources due to water scarcity 0.46 0.19 0.66 0.08 0.31 51.5% 
17. Pay more money for buying water due to water scarcity 0.54 0.12 0.52 0.17 0.39 42.3% 
18. Difficulties in washing hands or face 0.58 0.16 0.04 0.65 0.22 25.6% 
19. Difficulties in cooking 0.30 0.17 0.14 0.82 0.18 14.8% 
20. Difficulties in drinking 0.19 0.08 0.07 0.85 0.23 43.4% 
21. Unable to cook desirable meals due to water scarcity 0.36 0.33 0.37 0.33 0.52 26.1% 
22. Thought of leaving current place due to water scarcity 0.65 0.12 0.10 0.06 0.55 21.0% 
Eigenvalue 10.45 2.14 1.53 1.06   
Per cent of variance 24% 18% 15% 12%   

Note: Factor loadings over 0.50 appear in bold.

Table 3.

Adapted items (20-item) of household water insecurity and rotated factor loadings of the items, and eigenvalue, per cent of variance, and Cronbach's α of each factor in Nepali women (n = 371).

Household water insecurity items (20 items)Rotated factor loadings
Difficulties in house-work related to water (E = 9.7, % of variance = 25%, Cronbach's α = 0.93) 
 1. Difficulties in cleaning house 0.82 
 2. Difficulties in laundry 0.83 
 3. Difficulties in cleaning latrine/toilet 0.86 
 4. Difficulties in bathing 0.80 
 5. Living in unhygienic place due to water scarcity 0.51 
Lost opportunity costs and social interactions related to water (E = 2.1, % of variance = 19%, Cronbach's α = 0.89) 
 6. Dispute with neighbours/tenants/owners due to issue in water collection and water scarcity 0.69 
 7. Dispute with family members due to issue in water collection and water scarcity 0.78 
 8. Less time for daily work and income generating activities due to water collection 0.63 
 9. Less sleep due to the inappropriate water supply schedule 0.59 
 10. Having health problem or tiredness caused difficulties in water collection 0.75 
 11. Reduced efficiency of other daily work caused by water-related health problems 0.71 
 12. Unable to join social functions such as wedding/occasions/festivals due to water collection 0.73 
Insufficiency of a safe water supply (E = 1.5, cumulative % = 16%, Cronbach's α = 0.88) 
 13. Collect less water than needed 0.59 
 14. Use less quality of water or unsafe water source due to water scarcity 0.72 
 15. Cannot collect enough piped water because not enough water at the source 0.68 
 16. Cannot collect enough water from other sources due to water scarcity 0.67 
 17. Pay more money for buying water due to water scarcity 0.54 
Difficulties in basic activities related to water (E = 1.1, cumulative % = 12%, Cronbach's α = 0.86) 
 18. Difficulties in washing hands or face 0.64 
 19. Difficulties in cooking 0.81 
 20. Difficulties in drinking 0.85 
Household water insecurity items (20 items)Rotated factor loadings
Difficulties in house-work related to water (E = 9.7, % of variance = 25%, Cronbach's α = 0.93) 
 1. Difficulties in cleaning house 0.82 
 2. Difficulties in laundry 0.83 
 3. Difficulties in cleaning latrine/toilet 0.86 
 4. Difficulties in bathing 0.80 
 5. Living in unhygienic place due to water scarcity 0.51 
Lost opportunity costs and social interactions related to water (E = 2.1, % of variance = 19%, Cronbach's α = 0.89) 
 6. Dispute with neighbours/tenants/owners due to issue in water collection and water scarcity 0.69 
 7. Dispute with family members due to issue in water collection and water scarcity 0.78 
 8. Less time for daily work and income generating activities due to water collection 0.63 
 9. Less sleep due to the inappropriate water supply schedule 0.59 
 10. Having health problem or tiredness caused difficulties in water collection 0.75 
 11. Reduced efficiency of other daily work caused by water-related health problems 0.71 
 12. Unable to join social functions such as wedding/occasions/festivals due to water collection 0.73 
Insufficiency of a safe water supply (E = 1.5, cumulative % = 16%, Cronbach's α = 0.88) 
 13. Collect less water than needed 0.59 
 14. Use less quality of water or unsafe water source due to water scarcity 0.72 
 15. Cannot collect enough piped water because not enough water at the source 0.68 
 16. Cannot collect enough water from other sources due to water scarcity 0.67 
 17. Pay more money for buying water due to water scarcity 0.54 
Difficulties in basic activities related to water (E = 1.1, cumulative % = 12%, Cronbach's α = 0.86) 
 18. Difficulties in washing hands or face 0.64 
 19. Difficulties in cooking 0.81 
 20. Difficulties in drinking 0.85 

E: eigenvalue.

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