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Table 4 shows the regression coefficients of the univariate linear regression and multivariate regression models. The univariate linear regression showed that there was no association between overall household water insecurity scores and psychological distress in the participants (β = 0.61, p = 0.11).

Table 4.

The linear regression and stepwise multivariate regression for the impact of household water insecurity scale on psychological distress in Nepali women.

VariablesUnivariate regression
β (SE)
All
(n = 353)
β (SE)
>7 hours/week (n = 117)
β (SE)
4–7 hours/week
(n = 117)
β (SE)
<4 hours/week
(n = 119)
β (SE)
Total scores of household water insecurity 0.61 (0.37)     
Difficulties in house-work related to water 0.52 (0.30)    1.24 (0.42)b 
Lost opportunity costs and social interactions related to water 0.76 (0.30)a 0.82 (0.30)b  2.36 (0.52)c  
Insufficiency of a safe water supply −0.57 (0.30)     
Difficulties in basic activities related to water 0.22 (0.30)    0.92 (0.38)a 
Quantity of collected water (litres/capita/day) 1.03 (1.95)     
Age in years 0.02 (0.03)     
Household size 0.26 (0.13) 0.26 (0.13)a    
Having children (1 = yes, 0 = no) −0.55 (0.75) −1.69 (0.77)a −3.89 (1.35)b   
Educational level −0.87 (0.23)c −0.93 (0.25)c −1.28 (0.50)a −0.89 (0.35)a −1.13 (0.37)b 
Monthly household income (Ref. <NRs. 5,000)      
 NRs. 5,000–9,999 −2.41 (1.56) −1.79 (1.56)  −3.88 (3.10)  
 NRs. 10,000–14,999 −3.14 (1.62) −3.12 (1.61)  −4.83 (3.10)  
 NRs. 15,000–19,999 −4.27 (1.60)b −3.80 (1.61)a  −5.13 (3.14)  
 More than NRs. 20,000 −4.55 (1.58)b −3.54 (1.57)a  −5.00 (3.15)  
  < Not fixed income −6.05 (1.56)c −4.62 (1.58)b  −6.82 (3.17)a  
 Missing/do not know −4.04 (1.48)b −3.38 (1.49)a  −5.67 (2.99)  
Ethnicity (Ref. Brahmin/Chettri)      
 Newar/Janajati 0.13 (0.63)  0.10 (1.14)   
 Dalit −2.83 (2.24)  −10.97 (4.29)a   
Subjective rated health (4 = excellent, 0 = poor) −1.19 (0.35)b −0.82 (0.35)a −2.23 (0.65)b   
Social support (4 = very satisfied, 0 = very dissatisfied) −1.09 (0.38)b     
Personal relationships (4 = very satisfied, 0 = very dissatisfied) −1.29 (0.39)b    −1.25 (0.58)a 
Water supply service level (Ref. >7 hours/week)      
 4–7 hours/week −0.61 (0.74)     
  < 4 hours/week −0.89 (0.73)     
Intercept  26.77c 32.02c 25.97c 25.81c 
Adjusted-R2  0.11 0.17 0.19 0.18 
VariablesUnivariate regression
β (SE)
All
(n = 353)
β (SE)
>7 hours/week (n = 117)
β (SE)
4–7 hours/week
(n = 117)
β (SE)
<4 hours/week
(n = 119)
β (SE)
Total scores of household water insecurity 0.61 (0.37)     
Difficulties in house-work related to water 0.52 (0.30)    1.24 (0.42)b 
Lost opportunity costs and social interactions related to water 0.76 (0.30)a 0.82 (0.30)b  2.36 (0.52)c  
Insufficiency of a safe water supply −0.57 (0.30)     
Difficulties in basic activities related to water 0.22 (0.30)    0.92 (0.38)a 
Quantity of collected water (litres/capita/day) 1.03 (1.95)     
Age in years 0.02 (0.03)     
Household size 0.26 (0.13) 0.26 (0.13)a    
Having children (1 = yes, 0 = no) −0.55 (0.75) −1.69 (0.77)a −3.89 (1.35)b   
Educational level −0.87 (0.23)c −0.93 (0.25)c −1.28 (0.50)a −0.89 (0.35)a −1.13 (0.37)b 
Monthly household income (Ref. <NRs. 5,000)      
 NRs. 5,000–9,999 −2.41 (1.56) −1.79 (1.56)  −3.88 (3.10)  
 NRs. 10,000–14,999 −3.14 (1.62) −3.12 (1.61)  −4.83 (3.10)  
 NRs. 15,000–19,999 −4.27 (1.60)b −3.80 (1.61)a  −5.13 (3.14)  
 More than NRs. 20,000 −4.55 (1.58)b −3.54 (1.57)a  −5.00 (3.15)  
  < Not fixed income −6.05 (1.56)c −4.62 (1.58)b  −6.82 (3.17)a  
 Missing/do not know −4.04 (1.48)b −3.38 (1.49)a  −5.67 (2.99)  
Ethnicity (Ref. Brahmin/Chettri)      
 Newar/Janajati 0.13 (0.63)  0.10 (1.14)   
 Dalit −2.83 (2.24)  −10.97 (4.29)a   
Subjective rated health (4 = excellent, 0 = poor) −1.19 (0.35)b −0.82 (0.35)a −2.23 (0.65)b   
Social support (4 = very satisfied, 0 = very dissatisfied) −1.09 (0.38)b     
Personal relationships (4 = very satisfied, 0 = very dissatisfied) −1.29 (0.39)b    −1.25 (0.58)a 
Water supply service level (Ref. >7 hours/week)      
 4–7 hours/week −0.61 (0.74)     
  < 4 hours/week −0.89 (0.73)     
Intercept  26.77c 32.02c 25.97c 25.81c 
Adjusted-R2  0.11 0.17 0.19 0.18 

β: adjusted coefficient, SE: standard error, Ref.: reference. ap-value <0.05, bp-value <0.01, cp-value <0.001.

Note: NRs. 1 = USD 0.011.

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