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The water quality parameters that can also influence DBP formation (temperature, pH, free residual chlorine) were also measured in three seasons (spring, summer, and fall) and are shown in Table 1. The average concentration of free residual chlorine in the six districts was found to be in the range of 0.5–0.8 mg Cl2 L−1. As shown in Table 1, pH was in the range of 7 to 8. The average concentrations of HAAs in water samples are shown in Table 2. Average total HAAs varied between 8.67 μg L−1 and 58.11 μg L−1. The data presented in Table 2 showed that DCAA and TCAA had the highest values of HAA compounds in all samples. MCAA and MBAA were not detected among the five HAAs in the measured samples. MCAA, MBAA, and DBAA measured lower than the detection limit, which can be explained primarily by the trace amounts of bromide ions in the water sources leading to very low concentrations of brominated DBPs. The results of various studies have shown that DCAA and TCAA are the major HAA species even if there are brominated HAAs in the water (Golfinopoulos et al. 2003; Rodriguez et al. 2004; Uyak et al. 2008; Chang et al. 2010; Lou et al. 2010; Zhang et al. 2010; Ghoochani et al. 2013). In all the six districts in spring and fall, the concentration of HAA5 was higher than in summer. This high concentration is probably due to the greater presence of precursors favoring the formation of HAAs (Ghoochani et al. 2013).

Table 1

The mean measured tap water quality parameters in different districts

DistrictSeasonSample sizeapHTemperaturebFree residual chlorinec
Spring 27 7.7 18.83 0.53 
Summer 27 7.7 24.22 0.89 
Fall 27 7.2 13.11 0.87 
Spring 27 7.8 18.99 0.59 
Summer 27 7.9 24.11 0.71 
Fall 27 7.2 11.50 0.77 
Spring 18 7.9 19.03 0.63 
Summer 18 8.0 23.92 0.82 
Fall 18 7.5 12.50 0.72 
Spring 27 8.1 19.18 0.48 
Summer 27 8.1 24.17 0.7 
Fall 27 8.0 13.11 0.78 
Spring 45 8.0 17.8 0.46 
Summer 45 7.9 23.33 0.75 
Fall 45 7.9 12.63 0.77 
Spring 36 8.0 18.88 0.54 
Summer 36 7.8 24.25 0.73 
Fall 36 7.9 12.83 0.65 
DistrictSeasonSample sizeapHTemperaturebFree residual chlorinec
Spring 27 7.7 18.83 0.53 
Summer 27 7.7 24.22 0.89 
Fall 27 7.2 13.11 0.87 
Spring 27 7.8 18.99 0.59 
Summer 27 7.9 24.11 0.71 
Fall 27 7.2 11.50 0.77 
Spring 18 7.9 19.03 0.63 
Summer 18 8.0 23.92 0.82 
Fall 18 7.5 12.50 0.72 
Spring 27 8.1 19.18 0.48 
Summer 27 8.1 24.17 0.7 
Fall 27 8.0 13.11 0.78 
Spring 45 8.0 17.8 0.46 
Summer 45 7.9 23.33 0.75 
Fall 45 7.9 12.63 0.77 
Spring 36 8.0 18.88 0.54 
Summer 36 7.8 24.25 0.73 
Fall 36 7.9 12.83 0.65 

aSample size (n).

bTemperature (°C).

cFree residual chlorine (mg Cl2 L−1).

Table 2

The average concentration (SD) of HAA compounds (μgL−1) in water samples

DistrictSeasonSample sizeaDCAATCAATotal HAAs
Spring 27 33.72 (4.06) 14.38 (0.27) 48.11 (4.10) 
Summer 27 19.82 (2.15) 15.19 (0.42) 35.07 (2.19) 
Fall 27 34.61 (2.01) 17.15 (0.36) 51.80 (2.09) 
Spring 27 37.56 (3.59) 15.36 (0.31) 52.93 (3.71) 
Summer 27 30.27 (1.46) 15.4 (1.14) 45.67 (2.16) 
Fall 27 39.10 (1.09) 18.98 (1.08) 58.11 (0.67) 
Spring 18 35.66 (2.59) 15.26 (0.49) 50.96 (2.68) 
Summer 18 22.75 (3.12) 15.08 (0.92) 37.84 (3.51) 
Fall 18 39.12 (1.71) 17.65 (1.10) 56.67 (1.40) 
Spring 27 10.12 (1.22) 7.01 (1.08) 17.14 (1.97) 
Summer 27 6.20 (1.82) 5.31 (1.15) 11.51 (2.89) 
Fall 27 10.47 (1.11) 8.18 (0.56) 18.74 (0.71) 
Spring 45 9.30 (0.80) 6.46 (1.17) 15.78 (1.68) 
Summer 45 5.93 (1.41) 4.99 (0.87) 10.92 (2.27) 
Fall 45 10.52 (0.98) 8.47 (0.80) 19.00 (1.09) 
Spring 36 5.72 (0.64) 3.40 (0.62) 9.13 (0.7) 
Summer 36 4.76 (0.87) 3.90 (0.81) 8.67 (1.14) 
Fall 36 8.08 (1.07) 7.55 (1.48) 15.64 (2.08) 
DistrictSeasonSample sizeaDCAATCAATotal HAAs
Spring 27 33.72 (4.06) 14.38 (0.27) 48.11 (4.10) 
Summer 27 19.82 (2.15) 15.19 (0.42) 35.07 (2.19) 
Fall 27 34.61 (2.01) 17.15 (0.36) 51.80 (2.09) 
Spring 27 37.56 (3.59) 15.36 (0.31) 52.93 (3.71) 
Summer 27 30.27 (1.46) 15.4 (1.14) 45.67 (2.16) 
Fall 27 39.10 (1.09) 18.98 (1.08) 58.11 (0.67) 
Spring 18 35.66 (2.59) 15.26 (0.49) 50.96 (2.68) 
Summer 18 22.75 (3.12) 15.08 (0.92) 37.84 (3.51) 
Fall 18 39.12 (1.71) 17.65 (1.10) 56.67 (1.40) 
Spring 27 10.12 (1.22) 7.01 (1.08) 17.14 (1.97) 
Summer 27 6.20 (1.82) 5.31 (1.15) 11.51 (2.89) 
Fall 27 10.47 (1.11) 8.18 (0.56) 18.74 (0.71) 
Spring 45 9.30 (0.80) 6.46 (1.17) 15.78 (1.68) 
Summer 45 5.93 (1.41) 4.99 (0.87) 10.92 (2.27) 
Fall 45 10.52 (0.98) 8.47 (0.80) 19.00 (1.09) 
Spring 36 5.72 (0.64) 3.40 (0.62) 9.13 (0.7) 
Summer 36 4.76 (0.87) 3.90 (0.81) 8.67 (1.14) 
Fall 36 8.08 (1.07) 7.55 (1.48) 15.64 (2.08) 

aSample size (n).

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