Skip to Main Content

The water treatment carried out at WTP 3 in SABESP is conventional and standardized for all SABESP plants. It consists of seven stages: pre-chlorination, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, post-chlorination, and fluoridation. Each water treatment stage and its description are displayed in Table 1.

Table 1

Sequential water treatment stages and their objectives

Treatment stagesObjective
Pre-chlorination Control of algae and microorganisms and oxidation of materials, removing flavor, smell, and color 
Coagulation Addition of coagulants to destabilize colloidal suspension, such as ferric chloride and calcium oxide; pH adjustment (operates in the pH range from 7.5 to 10.5) 
Flocculation Aggregation and compaction of coagulated particles with suspended particles in the water, forming flakes 
Sedimentation Dynamic process to separate suspended solid particles that are denser than water by force of gravity 
Filtration (sand filters) Organic matter and pathogenic microorganism removal 
Post-chlorination Water disinfection with free residual chlorine in the potable water distribution network 
Fluoridation Use of H2SiF6 at the mean concentration of 0.7 ppm/L for caries prevention 
Treatment stagesObjective
Pre-chlorination Control of algae and microorganisms and oxidation of materials, removing flavor, smell, and color 
Coagulation Addition of coagulants to destabilize colloidal suspension, such as ferric chloride and calcium oxide; pH adjustment (operates in the pH range from 7.5 to 10.5) 
Flocculation Aggregation and compaction of coagulated particles with suspended particles in the water, forming flakes 
Sedimentation Dynamic process to separate suspended solid particles that are denser than water by force of gravity 
Filtration (sand filters) Organic matter and pathogenic microorganism removal 
Post-chlorination Water disinfection with free residual chlorine in the potable water distribution network 
Fluoridation Use of H2SiF6 at the mean concentration of 0.7 ppm/L for caries prevention 

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal