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The mean, minimum and maximum values of Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Pb, S, and Sr concentrations in fluorosilicic acid samples from SABESP's WTP 3, Vale Fertilizantes, and Anglo American and the maximum allowed concentration in fluorosilicic acid, according to the American Water Works Association (AWWA), are displayed in Table 3.

Table 3

Mean and minimum–maximum values of the concentration of contaminants (mg/L) in fluorosilicic acid samples from three distinct sources and maximum allowed value (MAV) in fluorosilicic acid, according to the American Water Works Association guidelines (AWWA 2011)

 SABESP – WTP 3 (mg/L)Vale Fertilizantes (mg/L)Anglo American (mg/L)MAV (AWWA 2011) (mg/L)
Al 17.7b (17.6–17.8) 164.0a (155.5–171.2) 10.5b (10.4–10.5) – 
As 3.3a (3.3–3.4) 0.37b (0.3–0.4) 0.36b (0.3–0.4) 0.001 
Ba 7.1a (7.1–7.2) 2.7c (1.9–3.3) 4.7b (4.6–4.7) 0.2 
Cd <0.01 (–) 0.44 (0.44–0.45) <0.01 (–) 0.0005 
Co 0.09b (0.09–0.10) <0.02 (–) 0.11a (0.111–0.114) – 
Cr 0.17c (0.16–0.17) 2.6a (2.6–2.7) 0.28b (0.26–0.29) 0.01 
Fe 250.2a (231.8–259.8) 196.6b (193.1–201.9) 259.7a (259.3–259.9) – 
Pb <0.01 (–) <0.01 (–) <0.01 (–) 0.0015 
293.5b (265.1–308.0) 265.2b (262.9–267.4) 330.6a (329.2–331.4) – 
Sr 23.2b (23.0–23.4) 93.6a (91.3–97.1) 19.7b (19.6–19.9) – 
 SABESP – WTP 3 (mg/L)Vale Fertilizantes (mg/L)Anglo American (mg/L)MAV (AWWA 2011) (mg/L)
Al 17.7b (17.6–17.8) 164.0a (155.5–171.2) 10.5b (10.4–10.5) – 
As 3.3a (3.3–3.4) 0.37b (0.3–0.4) 0.36b (0.3–0.4) 0.001 
Ba 7.1a (7.1–7.2) 2.7c (1.9–3.3) 4.7b (4.6–4.7) 0.2 
Cd <0.01 (–) 0.44 (0.44–0.45) <0.01 (–) 0.0005 
Co 0.09b (0.09–0.10) <0.02 (–) 0.11a (0.111–0.114) – 
Cr 0.17c (0.16–0.17) 2.6a (2.6–2.7) 0.28b (0.26–0.29) 0.01 
Fe 250.2a (231.8–259.8) 196.6b (193.1–201.9) 259.7a (259.3–259.9) – 
Pb <0.01 (–) <0.01 (–) <0.01 (–) 0.0015 
293.5b (265.1–308.0) 265.2b (262.9–267.4) 330.6a (329.2–331.4) – 
Sr 23.2b (23.0–23.4) 93.6a (91.3–97.1) 19.7b (19.6–19.9) – 

For each element, a similar letter indicates absence of significant statistical difference.

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