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In order to maintain well-defined filtration conditions, all fouling experiments were performed using monodisperse polystyrene (PS) particle standards (Bangs Laboratories Inc., Fishers, IN, USA). For both applied standards additional particle-size and zeta-potential measurements were performed by using Zetasizer Nano ZS (Malvern Instruments Ltd, Malvern, UK). Results and further specifications are given in Table 1. All measurements were performed in dispersion with ultrapure water. The respective dispersion was stable for at least 24 h. No significant effect on dispersion stability was observed when up to 10 g/l NaCl was added to the dispersion.

Table 1

Specifications of the applied particle-size standards

PropertyPS 28PS 280
Particle size (according to manufacturer) 28 nm 280 nm 
Particle size (own measurement) 27.56 (±0.98) nm 291.85 ( ± 2.82) nm 
Polydispersity index 0.08 (±0.01) 0.01 (±0.01) 
Size distribution Monodisperse Monodisperse 
Particle shape Spherical Spherical 
Material density 1.05 g/cm3 1.05 g/cm3 
Zeta-potential −45.76 (±2.65) mV −48.52 (±1.02) mV 
PropertyPS 28PS 280
Particle size (according to manufacturer) 28 nm 280 nm 
Particle size (own measurement) 27.56 (±0.98) nm 291.85 ( ± 2.82) nm 
Polydispersity index 0.08 (±0.01) 0.01 (±0.01) 
Size distribution Monodisperse Monodisperse 
Particle shape Spherical Spherical 
Material density 1.05 g/cm3 1.05 g/cm3 
Zeta-potential −45.76 (±2.65) mV −48.52 (±1.02) mV 

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